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Volume 4 Issue 8 (August 2017)

S.No. Title & Authors Page No View
1

Title : Study of Modified Internal Combustion Engine to Run with Ethanol

Authors : Sajag Poudel, Dipan Deb

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Moving across the emerging trends of renewable energy sources, ethanol has attracted more attention because it is considered as a renewable resource and is easily obtained from sugar or starch. Moreover, ethanol fuel as an IC engine fuel would be able to solve the issue of carbon emission and environmental pollution. Ethanol can replace conventional gasoline to be used as a fuel for automotive. This paper is about the results and analysis obtained during the test of an IC engine with ethanol before and after modification. As we want to run an IC engine with ethanol, its physical and chemical properties play crucial role. Due to different physical & chemical properties of ethanol than that of gasoline, proper engine parameters should be maintained in gasoline engine to run it with ethanol i.e. the stoichiometric ratio needs to be maintained. An attempt to test gasoline based IC engine using ethanol initially didn’t give promising result in terms of efficiency and mileage. Carburetor of engine was modified so as to maintain proper stoichiometric ratio which improved the brake power of engine but with more fuel consumption; resulting to lesser thermal efficiency at the end. Finally, the optimal utilization of ethanol in the modified gasoline engine was done by changing the compression ratio of the engine. Since, ethanol has higher octane rating, it can sustain higher compression ratio and boost up the engine performance. The gasoline & ethanol (with modified carburettor) test was done in 4 stroke gasoline engine test rig and the results like brake power, specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency was analysed. The loss in efficiency in case of ethanol was brought down by increasing the compression ratio of same engine. Due to some feasibility constraint, variable compression ratio (VCR) engine was used for experiments rather than changing the compression ratio of the engine itself.

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2

Title : Physical and mechanical properties of the south Mashhads granites, Robat Toroghs area (North East of Iran)

Authors : Saba Azghandinezhad, Mina Deymi Moghaddam, Mahshid Mohammadzadehrahbardar, Pooria Dehghan

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Recognition of intact rock’s engineering characteristics in construction projects that are dealing with the foundation rock, is quite important and in the primary stages of implementing engineering structures will be seriously considered. In this research, to study the engineering properties of granitic rocks in south of Mashhad City (North East of Iran), three boreholes were drilled to a depth of 10 m in the rock mass and the rock samples were transported to the laboratory. To determine the physical and mechanical properties of these rocks experimental tests such as uniaxial compressive test, triaxial, direct shear, dry and saturated density, porosity and water absorption were performed on the core specimens. Also, joint’s roughness coefficient was estimated by the method of Barton. The results can be used for calculation of bearing capacity of rock mass and also in optimal designing of the construction of high-rise structures.

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3

Title : Cost Analysis of partially replaced Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) with Groundnut Shell Ash in a Concrete Mix

Authors : Afolayan J. O, Oriola F. O. P., Sani J. E.

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The cost analysis of partially replaced cement with groundnut shell ash (GSA) was conducted to ascertain the percentage reduction in price of cement in concrete.  Researchers have revealed that agricultural wastes are viable replacement materials, especially for cement in concrete. GSA was used in this research and the percentage level of cement replacement adopted were 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30%. Workability was measured in the fresh concrete by the Slump test and 100mm x 100mm x 100mm cube specimens were tested for compressive strength at 7, 14 21 and 28days using a concrete mix ratio of 1:2:4 and water cement ratio of 0.55. Results showed that workability reduced with increase in percentage of GSA replacement with an acceptable value of 15mm for 15% replacement, if mechanical vibrator is to be employed. Compressive strengths of 32.01 N/mm2 and 31.78N/mm2 were obtained at 5% and 10% of replacement of cement respectively. While the maximum strength of the specimen with 0% replacement was 34.22N/mm2. Compressive strength values of 32.01 N/mm2 and 31.78N/mm2 for the 5% and 10% cement replacement also satisfied the provisions for minimum structural grade concrete of 25N/mm2. This leads to economy of material and enhances the alternative usage of agricultural wastes. The use of 10% GSA replacement leads to a decrease in the cost of cement in concrete to a value of 10% of the total cost of cement required. The cost saving becomes significant when large volume of concrete is involved in construction.

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4

Title : Sedimentary, Mineralogy and Biofacies of Holocene deposits of Al-Hammar and Al-Hewaiza marshes near Qurna

Authors : Abdalrazak A., Albadran B., Pournelle J.

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The southern part of Mesopotamia is an important area, it is considered as an ambiguous environment during the Quaternary period. Two sites were chosen for boreholes in the southern part of Mesopotamia on both sides of the Tigris River before its confluence with the Euphrates River north Qurna. Site one is on the east side of Al-Hammar marsh, site two is on the west side of Al-Hewaiza marsh. The sampling was carried out during October 2014 and February 2015.  Sedimentology, mineralogy and fauna analyses were done to a depth about 3 – 3.5m in order to distinguish the paleoenvironments during the Holocene period. Results of grain size analysis indicate five textures; Silt, Silty sand, Sandy silt, Mud, and Clay. Silt percentage is dominant in the sediments of all the sites. Mineral analysis shows that the minerals are; Calcite, Quartz, Dolomite, Feldspar and Gypsum, Calcite is a dominant mineral in the area of the study. The clay minerals in the area of the study are; Kaolinite, Illite, Montmorillonite, Chlorite, Palygorskite and mixed layers of Montmorillonite – Chlorite, and Illite – palygorskite. According to fauna assemblages, three Biofacies were identified on every site. In site one, a light gray layer of 5cm in thickness at depth 252 – 257cm contains a lot and diversity of fauna assemblage, clay percentage is 97% and calcite percentage is 75%, considered this layer belongs to marine transgression during 6000 yrs. B.P based on fauna assemblages. Few numbers of fauna assemblages indicate a freshwater environment and large numbers indicate brackish, Tidal flat, Lagoonal and shallow marine environments. The sea – level of the Arabian Gulf was 3m above present level according to Lambeck (1996), when 2m added to 3m because the ground level of the area was 2m below the actual level due to the tectonic or depositional reasons, the sea – level of the Arabian Gulf, after adding 5m to the actual level, covers the area of study and go much further than that.

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5

Title : Problems, opportunities and prospects of big data

Authors : Jamalova Jala

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The article shows how to manage Big Data sets. Areas of application of Big Data and efficiency are considered. The issues of data security and the possibility of using the "openness" mechanism for data management were discussed.

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6

Title : Nonlinear dynamics of system oscillations modeled by a forced Van der Pol generalized oscillator

Authors : A. V. Monwanou, L. A. Hinvi, C. H. Miwadinou, J. B. Chabi Orou

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This paper considers the oscillations of system modeled by a forced Van der Pol generalized oscillator. These oscillations are described by a nonlinear differential equation. The amplitudes of the forced harmonic, primary resonance super-harmonic and sub-harmonic oscillatory states are obtained using the harmonic balance technique and the multiple time scales methods. Hysteresis and jump phenomena in the system oscillations are obtained. Bifurcation sequences displayed by the model for each type of oscillatory states are performed numerically through the fourth-order Runge-Kutta scheme.

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7

Title : Effects of Temperature Variation on the Cutting Edge Hardness of Selected HSS and HCS Single Point Cutting Tools

Authors : B. Kareem, S.F. Daramola

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Cutting tool life depends on the degree of resistance to wear on the cutting edge. Temperature rise due to heat generated in work piece and cutting tool interface was found to be responsible for tool wear. Dry cutting is necessary to prevent corrosive effect of coolants. On this basis, Rockwell class ‘A’ (HRA) hardness test was employed in testing the hardness of four selected single point cutting tools at varying temperature. The tools are High Speed Steel (HSS) tools (M4 and M1), and High Carbon Steel (HCS) tools (Q275 and A36) according to Society of American Engineers (SAE) steel grades. The temperature variation was achieved by heating the samples in a digital electric furnace at varying temperature from 150 oC to 750 oC as specified by the SAE standard, in step of 50oC. The hardness number was read directly through a digital display unit of the Identec hardness tester, while determining the hardness of the cutting edge (tip) of the tool. The results obtained were analyzed using statistical regression model. From the experimental results, the high speed steel tools showed better hardness at higher temperatures than High carbon steel tools.  The range of temperature that supported dry cutting was predicted.

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8

Title : Modified Cyclostationarity Feature Detection for Asynchronous PU Occurrence in Cognitive Radio Systems

Authors : Ashraf A. Eltholth

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This paper mitigates the consequences of asynchronous primary user (PU) activities within the cognitive radio user sensing time period. The effect of arrival and departure times of PU on the joint time-frequency cyclostationarity is illustrated with the 802.11a OFDM signal and applies results obtained for an adaptive threshold based cyclostationarity feature. The proposed scaling algorithm is based on the probability of effective sample size. The proposed algorithm improves the ROC performance under various PU occurrence conditions.

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9

Title : Measurement for Diversity Indices of Algal Community in different Ponds in Coal Mining City Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India

Authors : Suman Dhar, Kumar Nikhil

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Ten ponds in coal mining city Dhanbad were selected for this study to calculate the Species richness, Species evenness and Sannon diversity index for algae in summer season and a total of 36 species were recorded. To elucidate the community structure in each pond, these indexes were calculated. The Species richness, Species evenness and Sannon diversity index indicates the pollution index of different ponds in coal mining city Dhanbad affected by different sources. In ten ponds the indices do not go hand in hand indicating higher diversity with moderately to higher pollution level. Algal biodiversity indices can be used in detecting the community structure and level of pollution in these ten ponds.

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10

Title : The Nature Diagnosability of Bubble-sort Star Graphs under the PMC Model and MM Model

Authors : Mujiangshan Wang, Yuqing Lin, Shiying Wang

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Many multiprocessor systems have interconnection networks as underlying topologies and an interconnection network is usually represented by a graph where nodes represent processors and links represent communication links between processors. No fault set can contain all the neighbors of any fault-free vertex in the system, which is called the nature diagnosability of the system. Diagnosability of a multiprocessor system is one important study topic. As a famous topology structure of interconnection networks, the -dimensional  bubble-sort star graph  has many good properties. In this paper, we prove that the nature diagnosability of  is  under the PMC model for , the nature diagnosability of  is  under the MM model for .

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11

Title : Internet Privacy

Authors : Matthew N. O. Sadiku, Sarhan M. Musa, Osama M. Musa

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The benefits of the Internet have come at some cost, one of which is a loss of privacy, which is often regarded as a moral right or a legal right. Internet privacy is primarily concerned with protecting user information. It is widely acknowledged as the top consideration in any online interaction. New threats to privacy and civil liberties are emerging daily and privacy practices are not one size fits all. This paper provides a brief introduction to online privacy.

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12

Title : In-situ calibration of humidity with simultaneous effect of resistance and capacitance at different frequencies

Authors : T. A. Qasuria, S. Alam, S. A. Qasuria, N. A. Qureshi, K. Islam, K. S. Karimov

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The measurement and control of humidity is one of the most crucial issues in several fields of applications such as automated systems, instrumentation, agriculture, climatology and GIS. Various kinds of materials are being examined for their humidity sensing properties. Here we investigate humidity sensing characteristics of organic-inorganic composite based sensor fabricated on a glass substrate. Carbon nanotubes-zinc oxide (CNTs-ZnO) blend prepared in ethanol is used as organic-inorganic composite layer. The resistance and capacitance of the device are measured as function of relative humidity (RH) at different frequencies. The decrease in resistance and increase in capacitance of the device manifests humidity sensitivity of CNTs-ZnO composite. The capacitive and resistive response of the hygrometer was analyzed at frequencies of 0.1 kHz, 1 kHz and 10 kHz. The sensor shows higher sensitivity at lower frequency as compared with the higher ones.

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13

Title : Identifying informative signs for the recognition of non-stationary signals of information-measuring systems on the base of spectral analysis and filtration on the wavelet basis

Authors : Imanova Ulkar

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To identify the informative signs used in the procedure of recognition of non-stationary signals of information-measuring systems are suggested to use spectral analysis based on discrete wavelet-transformation and filtrationin the wavelet display area. Informative signs are formed via processing of useful signalsobtained by filtrationand recognition signalsare produced on the base of these signs.

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14

Title : Anaerobic Digestion for Agro-industrial Wastes: a Latin American perspective

Authors : Ivan Lopez, Liliana Borzacconi

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The main aspects of the anaerobic digestion process are reviewed. The characteristics of the more important systems for the treatment of liquid and solid wastes are presented. High rate reactors for the treatment of liquid wastes such as the UASB (Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanquet), EGSB (Expanded Granular Sludge Bed) and IC (Internal Circulation) reactors are described. Additionally, different types of solid waste digesters are discussed. The valorization of wastes as a source of energy that contributes to minimization of the carbon footprint is highlighted. Additionally, the use of digestate as soil amendment and nutrient addition contributes to the environmental use of resources. Data related to the methane yield for different substrates are collected, and the potential of methane generation when the waste quantities are known is computed. Estimations from Latin-American countries and outside the region are reviewed to evaluate the impact on the energy demand.

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15

Title : Empirical Performance of Weibull Self-Similar Tele-traffic Model

Authors : J. Popoola, R. A. Ipinyomi

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The stringent memoryless assumption in general traffic modeling is often violated due to concurrent or batch arrivals. Batch arrivals often leads to self-similarity or long range dependency problems in Internet traffic. Modeling tele-traffic data in this condition requires the use of heavy tailed distribution. In this paper, we propose a general form of Weibull tele-traffic model for self-similar Internet traffic data. The model empirical performance was observed via Monte-Carlo simulation with the aid of discrete event simulation. Performance analysis for the proposed model alongside standard Poisson/ Exponential model was also achieved. The results from the analysis established the strength of Weibull model over the existing model.

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16

Title : Study of the physicochemical quality of water in the Sebi-Ponty basin at Diamniadio (Senegal)

Authors : Ibrahima Thiam, Seni Tamba, Elhadji Bamba Diaw, Gregoire Sissoko

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The Sebi-Ponty dam has a basin that is widely used by the population for agro-pastoral activities (animal watering, agriculture, etc.). This basin covers an average area of 106,000 m2 and an average depth of 7 m or about a volume of 435,000 m3. The origin of the water is rainfall (runoff and direct descent). The availability of water is estimated to eight months taking into account the water being drawn, infiltration and evaporation. A qualitative knowledge of the contents of this pool will be a great benefit to those activities of the population. It’s in this context that this study was carried out by this group of researchers, following physic-chemical compositions were targeted: turbidity, color, temperature, conductivity, pH, hardness; alkalinity, nitrite, iron, phosphate, boron, and chlorine concentrations. The physico-chemical results obtained on samples taken in the basin between October and December showed that the concentrations of boron, iron and nitrite exceeded the levels recommended by the standard for agro pastoral needs. While turbidity, color, temperature, conductivity, pH, hardness, alkalinity, phosphate and chlorine are at acceptable levels.

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Title : Use Of Remote Sensing For Urban Impervious Surfaces: A Case Study Of Lahore

Authors : Muhammad Asad, Sajid Rashid Ahmad, Farhan Ali, Rashid Mehmood, Muhammd Atif Butt, Sana Rathore

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Impervious surfaces are manmade surfaces which are highly resistant to infiltration of water. Accurate and rapid classification of impervious surfaces would help in emergency management after extreme events like flooding, earthquakes and hurricanes, by providing quick estimates and updated maps for emergency response. The advances on remote sensing technology provide easier, faster and cost effective method to do adamage assessment. In this study, three different remote sensing techniques (Normalized difference built up index, Supervised Classification and Object based image analysis) was used to assess the current status of impervious surfaces in district Lahore. As Increasing population, new development in open lands and recreation areas, and growing towns all translate into increasing impervious surface areas across Lahore. Therefore, estimating and mapping impervious surface is significant to a range of issues and themes in environmental science central to global environmental change and human environment interactions. The datasets of impervious surfaces are valuable not only for environmental management, e.g., water quality assessment and storm water taxation but also for urban planning, e.g., building infrastructure and sustainable urban development.

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Title : Extraction Of Non-Ferrous And Noble Metals From Mill Tailing By Solutions In The Presence Of Oxidizing Agents

Authors : Kenzhaliyev B.K., Berkinbayeva A.N., Dosymbayeva Z.D., Sharipov R.Kh.

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Optimal parameters of leaching of non-ferrous and noble metals from mill tailing by solutions in the presence of oxidizing agents (paramagnetic catalyst) are investigated.The optimum concentration of sulfuric acid and sodium cyanide was determined in the leaching of gold-containing mill tailings.It is shown that the presence of oxidizing agents in solutions leads to an increase in the extraction of metals into the solution. It was found that the extraction of gold, copper, zinc, lead and manganese during the process of conventional sulfuric acid leaching is significantly lower than during the presence of an oxidizing agent.Dissolution of copper, depending on the different concentration of sulfuric acid (g / dm3: 5.0, 10.0, 15.0, 20.0) showed that the degree of metal extraction by using oxidizing agents increases, respectively, 35.2%, 64.0%, 65.0%, 65.9%.

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