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Volume 4 Issue 4 (April 2017)

S.No. Title & Authors Page No View
1

Title : A new methodology for health monitoring of cable-stayed bridges; identifying the major features sensitive to damage/failure

Authors : Mohammad Hashemi Yekani, Omid Bahar

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Abstract :

In this research a general methodology is presented for health monitoring of cable-stayed bridges. This methodology has two main phases: 1) identifying different damage/failure modes through linear static, nonlinear static and nonlinear dynamic time history analyses; 2) individualizing the features of the considered bridge sensitive to the recognized damage/failure modes. In order to evaluate the proposed methodology as an exemplified the Kobe earthquake is normalized into 1g in the vertical, transversal and longitudinal directions and used as the input of non-linear dynamic time history analyses of the QINGZHOU Bridge. The components are divided into a few shorter frequency ranges. The features and their values sensitive to damages/failures are recognized in each individual frequency domain. Extensive analysis using various earthquake records, the Big Bear, Chi-Chi and El-Centro earthquake records, shows that expected damages and recognized sensitive features in similar frequency domains are exactly the same as those for the Kobe earthquake. Recognized sensitive features in this study are the vertical displacement and acceleration of the main span center, lateral displacement of the top of towers, vertical displacement of some points of the main girder of deck near the towers and also strain of cables. Extensive analysis shows that by using the new proposed methodology and monitoring a few selected features of a cable-stayed bridge various source of its potential damages during strong ground motions are trustfully predicted and controlled in early steps.  

1-17
2

Title : Experimental analyses of springback variation in wipe bending

Authors : Saravanan S, R.Rathish, N.Balakrishnan, R.Balamurugan, S.Balakumaran, S. Ajith, Alexpandian A

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In an effort to reduce the weight of vehicles, automotive companies are used the CRS, HRS and Aluminium 6061. These materials are used widely in the automobile industry for car panels. Springback is an important issue in sheet metal forming. It arises from the elastic recovery, mainly due to bending, permanent softening of metallic sheet and transient behavior subjected to reverse loading. The hardening parameters related to the Bauschinger effect, permanent softening and transient behavior are optimized from the springback profiles of wipe bending tests. Here an approach is proposed to measure the Bauschinger effect In general, the influence of the Bauschinger effect must be considered for obtaining accurate springback predictions. Springback is the elastically driven change of shape that occurs following a sheet forming separation when the forming loads are removed from the work piece. It is commonly undesirable, causing problems such as increased tolerances and variability in the subsequent forming operations such as in assembly and in the final part.  Most sheet metal elements undergo complicated deformations during forming process. An efficient and low cost wipe bending experiment has been designed to investigate the influence of the Bauschinger effect on spring back in sheet metal forming. From these experiments, it can be concluded that the influence of the Bauschinger effect on springback is more significant in AL6061.

18-22
3

Title : Improved Enhanced Version Of Solar Photo Voltaic System

Authors : J.Joan vinith, R.M.Sekar

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The photovoltaic (PV) panel depends on irradiance, temperature and load.The power produced in this system is not optimal. Hence, maximum power is extracted from PV array. MPPT varies the electrical operating point of the PV modul es which delivers maximum available power. A new model designed that uses open circuit voltage and short circuit current, sampled from a reference PV Panel. Using these measurements the maximum power is been tracked from main panel without breaking the power transferred to load. A DC-DC converter was used to transfer maximum power  between source and load.

23-27
4

Title : PV FED DC-DC Converter With Two Input Boost Stages

Authors : M.Arunkumar, Mr.K.Palanivelrajan

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Renewable energy system is getting a importance in the energy generation due to their clean and environment features .The renewable systems usually generate a lower voltage which requires a high step up dc-dc converter at the front end .In order to meet the requirements of the grid the low voltage has to stepped up, which a basic boost converter cannot be employed due to its high duty ratio requirements which leads a high switch loss that degrades the efficiency. In order to alleviate the issues related to the high gain conversion with bigger efficiency a new converter based on the isolated resonant topology is introduced which can be used to draw power from renewable sources with a minimal loss. The isolated resonant functionality enables the converter to operate high gain and maximum efficiency by introducing the zero-voltage switching and zero-current switching for all of the active switches and the diodes respectively in operating range which makes the converter suitable for renewable application. The effectiveness of the proposed method is carried out and the results are presented and it shows that converters operates high gain ratio with an efficiency of 97.2%.

28-34
5

Title : Designing the automatic train alarm system at the railway intersection

Authors : Viet Nguyen Hoang, Trang Le Thi Huyen, Hien Phan Thanh

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There are around 15,000 people killed every year in rail accidents [1]. Although railway accidents often have little in the number of cases, they have serious consequences. In countries using rail transport network as much as India, every year thousands of people die due to railway accidents (according to [2] in 2014 with 2,547 people) and will continue to increase in the recent years. Some other countries, such as Vietnam, Pakistan, Spain, USA, UK, and France... railway traffic accidents are tending to increase. Major reasons leading to railway accidents may be mentioned as: Malfunction train or light signals, Failing mechanics, Inadequate maintenance of tracks, not printing plate Safety gates, Crossings that are unprotected, negligence by the conductor, Train or parts that are defective [3]. In addition to the uncontrollable (random) causes, the initiative that is increased about the alerts at the railway intersections will contribute to reduce accidents. This paper presents a study result of the alarm system at intersections between railway and road. The results have shown that the system has a number of advantages over existing systems that are being applied.

35-38
6

Title : Refractive Index of Reference Material under Different Measurement Conditions

Authors : Soraya khodier, Salah H.R. Ali, Ihab Naeim, Adel Shehata

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Refractive indices of different concentrations (5 ppm up to 200 ppm) of reference chemical solution (Fe(NO3)3) Nonahydrate were determined with an accuracy of ±10-5, the Brix of these chemicals were measured by using Digital multi-wavelengths (refractometer DSR-λ). Practically, the refractive indices of these solutions have been measured as a function of temperatures in the spectral visible range 0.4-0.7 µm; with increasing wavelengths and with increasing temperature the refractive index decreased monotonically. The refractive indices are increasing with increasing concentrations. Also, the Brix of this solution have been measured as a function of temperature (20 οC up to 30 οC) with wavelengths in the same visible spectral range. The Brix values are used as a tool of concentration of these chemicals samples. The empirical formula between the concentration and the Brix of these chemical are applied.

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7

Title : Importance Of Emotional Intelligence In The Workplace

Authors : Dr. Bhavana Arora

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The term emotional intelligence is often contrasted with Intelligence Quotient. Many of us are aware of IQ as an individual’s score performing a series of tests designed to measure intellectual intelligence. Higher IQs indicate better cognitive abilities—these include the ability to learn and understand—and people with higher IQs are more likely to do well academically. Intelligence Quotient is a measure for a person's intelligence whereas Emotional Intelligence (EI), measured as an Emotional Intelligence Quotient (EQ), describes a concept that involves the ability, capacity, skill or a self-perceived ability, to identify, assess, and manage the emotions of one’s self, of others, and of groups. The EQ concept argues that IQ, or conventional intelligence, is too narrow; that there are wider areas of emotional intelligence that dictate and enable how successful we are. At the workplace, emotional intelligence is very important. It is believed that while cognitive skills help to get a job, it is emotional intelligence that helps to get promotions. Those who are in the higher levels of the organizational hierarchy require more emotional intelligence than those in the lower levels. It is believed that at the workplace, emotional intelligence is twice as important as analytical and technical skills. The present paper deals with the concept of Emotional Intelligence as a significant area of professional growth and highlights its importance in the workplace.

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8

Title : Comparing the efficiency of two different models of combined parallel flash binary cycles

Authors : Aria Jafar Yazdi

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The main aim of this paper is a comparative study of two different geothermal power plant concepts, based on the exergy analysis. The cycles studied in this paper are the combination of single and double flash power plants with two different ORC cycles as regenerative ORC and regenerative ORC with an IHE, with R113 as working fluid. The main gain due to using combined flash-binary power plants with various types of ORCs is to achieve optimum and efficient energy utilization for Sabalan geothermal power plants.

46-50
9

Title : Development of Laser Lift-off Process with a GaN/Al0.7Ga0.3N Strained-Layer Superlattice for Vertical UVC LED Fabrication

Authors : David Doan, Shinji Nozaki, Kazuo Uchida

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A laser lift-off (LLO) process with a GaN/Al0.7Ga0.3N strained-layer superlattice was newly developed for use in the fabrication of a vertical UVC LED without the use of UVC incompatible materials such as epoxy to suppress cracking. Since the UVC-LED epitaxial structures grown by Metal-Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy contain AlGaN layers with high Al contents, it is often grown on an AlN buffer layer. In blue LEDs, GaN buffer layers are used for growth. However, GaN-based films often present a problem for UVC growth, resulting in cracking caused by lattice mismatch.  AlN layers are transparent to UV lasers utilized in the LLO process and thus making lift-off of the sapphire substrate very challenging. This GaN/Al0.7Ga0.3N strained layer superlattice was employed to absorb the UV laser during the LLO process and suppress the dislocations climbing to the UVC-LED epitaxial structure grown on this layer allowing for a highly uniform and crack-free surface. UVC-LED structures were grown utilizing a GaN/Al0.7Ga0.3N strained layer superlattice inside a horizontal flow metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy reactor. Copper substrates were then deposited onto the back surface of the wafers. LLO was achieved by employing a laser fluence of 1 J/cm2 from a 248 nm excimer laser through the sapphire substrate. Successful LLO of a 2” sapphire substrate was attained without any cracking introduced when using this process. No deterioration of crystal quality in UVC-LED epitaxial structure such as dislocations and intermixing of atoms by LLO was also confirmed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy analysis.

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10

Title : Evaluation of Frame Aggregation in Giga-bit WLANs

Authors : Ashraf Ali Bourawy, Takwa Alokap

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Recently, the very high throughput (VHT) IEEE 802.11ac amendment has emerged as the fifth generation of wireless local area networks (WLANs). Enhancements to the physical and MAC layers have been defined which elevate the data rate to 6.933 Gbps. The 802.11ac amendment extends the frame size from 8000 bytes to approximately 11454 bytes, which increases the ability to aggregate frames from upper layers. Moreover, frame aggregation is employed in 802.11ac which states that all MAC protocol data units (MPDU) must use the aggregate MPDU (A-MPDU) format. In this paper we evaluate the techniques of frame aggregation adopted by IEEE 802.11ac. In particular, we study the impact of frame aggregation on the system throughput. Simulation results show that frame aggregation is a powerful mechanism in terms of increasing system throughput through reducing overhead in MAC layer.

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11

Title : Water Conservation Optimisation For Building Drainage Systems

Authors : Dr. D. P. Campbell

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An assessment of the impact of water conserving fixtures and fittings in typical housing development subject to water conservation measures is conducted.  A range of 25 different house styles were simulated with a diversity (random usage) profile based on appliance type and site investigation. The simulation was conducted by DRAINET, a simulation engine based on the Method of Characteristics and a finite difference scheme validated through field studies. Simulation results show that water conservation down to 80% of non-conserved levels did not significantly reduce the solid transport capability of the associated waste water collection system. At 60% of non-conserved levels, there was a marked reduction in the solid transport capability of the waste water collection system. The use of a small (14 litre) intermittent discharge tank (tipping tank) is suggested as a means of extending safe water conservation practices. The tipping tank option would be the best value and fastest technology to implement as a retro-fit option or as a feature in new-builds. Using only approximately 10% of the water conserved, this measure is effective in maintaining solid transport down to 60% of non-conserved levels, which is significantly lower than current water conservation initiatives are achieving.

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12

Title : Analysis of Surge Propagation with Lightning Arrester using FDTD for 25 kV-AC Transmission Line

Authors : Kokiat Aodsup, Thanatchai Kulworawanichpong

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This paper analyzes lightning surge propagation and reflection as the surge arrives at a lightning arrester. Telegraphist equations have been used to characterize the voltage and current of a travelling wave in a lossless power transmission line and finite difference time domain (FDTD) method has been used to analyze lightning surge propagation. The characteristics of the reflected wave and transmitted wave have been compared in two cases: (i)using silicon carbide (SiC) arrester, and (ii)using metal oxide varistor (MOV) arrester.  The results have shown that, reflected and transmitted waves from the MOV arrester are almost equal in magnitude to those from the SiC arrester, however, the former is more preferable because it has a smoother waveform.

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13

Title : Experimental Investigation of Recycling of Rock-Wool Insulation as Insulator in Concrete Blocks

Authors : Sarath Menon, Dr. Vishal Gangadhar Naranje

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Recent developments in building energy saving managements have led to considerable improvements in energy savings of building sector. Therefore looking at various optimization strategies to reduce the building energy consumptions. These measures include improving the building materials, energy conversion technologies, control strategies etc. But there is still a strong interest to reduce the energy use of buildings through reduction of heat losses. The largest source of energy Mineral wool (or rock wool) is a non-metallic, inorganic product manufactured using stone/rock. The Rockwool can be placed inside hollow concrete blocks and the insulation assessment of these materials can be examined based on the heat transfer rate. This study aims at the comparative study of Rockwool and Thermocol (Polystyrene) insulation used in concrete blocks. Cement-based composites are among the most widely-used construction materials due to their low cost, high compressive strength, high durability, versatility, and easy-handling. Unfortunately, cement-based composites are intrinsically porous and may deteriorate and be liable to rebar corrosion as a result of exposure to harsh environments or poor construction quality. In general, proper design procedures, adequate concrete cover depth, corrosion-inhibiting admixture, and low-permeability cement-based composites can be selected for corrosion prevention and control. There are three type of concrete blocks used for this analysis. The thermal properties of Rockwool-concrete composite and Thermocol-concrete composite will be analyzed and will be simulated in ANSYS. Thus we determine the effectiveness of insulation provided by the Rockwool material with the hollow concrete block. In hardware part rock wool inserted building block’s thermal conductivity is tested by ASTM C518 test method (British standard).This analysis will help us to determine the efficient insulator and will help us reuse the Rockwool and Thermocol wastes generated in industries and commercial sites.

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14

Title : Unmanned Aerial System

Authors : Likhit Unadkat, Onkar Kumbhar, Sarang Kadam, Sachin Ruikar

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The project aimed to design autonomous, inexpensive, lightweight, and easy to manufacture UAV. The drone was designed as an aeroplane UAV that houses microcontroller based wireless transmission system and has communication with the ground station remote control. The drone met size and cost standards, and could successfully take the flight of reasonable altitude and distance. Additionally, its controls are understood through simulation and testing. The future developments for our project would be made by providing facility to carry more payload as per required application.

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15

Title : A Design of Sierpinski Triangular Slotted Sierpinski Fractal Patch Antenna For Multi Band Applications

Authors : Shubha Mishra, Prashant Singodiya, Dr. Anuj Jain, Dheeraj Singodia

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In this paper, a novel design of Sierpinski Triangular slotted Sierpinski fractal patch antenna is presented. In this work a diagonally triangular slotted sierpinski fractal patch antenna is designed for 4.27 GHz frequency. These fractal antennas are basically microstrip patch antenna. For designing this microstrip fractal patch antenna IE3D simulation software is used. In all fractal antennas FR4 epoxy is used as substrate with height 1.6 mm and dielectric constant 4.4 respectively. For feeding we have used Probe feeding method. In all iteration feeding point is same and radius of feeding point is 0.16mm.    In the base shape a rectangle patch of length 10.56 mm X 15.24mm is chosen as base shape shown in figure1. In the first iteration four triangular patches of 1 mm X 1 mm X 1mm X 1 mm are cut from the geometry( from four corners) at a gap of 0.50 mm.. In the second iteration again four triangular patches of 1 mm X 1 mm X 1 mm X 1 mm are cut at a gap of 0.25 mm from the triangle of the first iteration.. Same procedure is done in third iteration.

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16

Title : Combined Approach for Detection and Prevention of Flooding and Black-hole Attack in MANET

Authors : Ashok Panwar, D.Srinivasa Rao, G. Sriram

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Wireless network is the network of mobile computer nodes that are not physically wired. The main advantage of such network is communicating with rest of the world while being mobile. The risks to users of wireless technology have increased as the service has become more popular. Due to the dynamically changing topology, open environment and lack of centralized security infrastructure, a mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is vulnerable to the presence of malicious nodes and to ad hoc routing attacks. There are a wide variety of routing attacks that target the weakness of MANETs. In this paper, we proposed a novel approach for analysis of black-hole and Flooding attack and intended to find methodology. The proposed solution is based on PDR and generating fake request threshold computation by which we can conclude there is availability of malicious attacker. The implementation of the proposed Secure Routing Testing concept of finding malicious attacker is performed using NS 2 i.e. network simulator 2 and  for implementing the security protocol in existing routing the AODV routing protocol with modifications are performed. The experimental results shows the adoptable performance of the algorithm and improves the different performance parameters i.e. throughput, end to end delay, packet delivery ratio, and energy consumption.

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17

Title : An Efficient Detection Of Brain Tumor in MR Brain Images Using Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors : Somya Yadav, Dr. K.K Singh

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This paper talks about image segmentation which can be attained through different ways such as water shed and contours, thresholding, region growing. In image classification, an image is classified according to its visual content. This paper also discuss how to extract information about the tumor, then in the first level i.e pre-processing level, the parts which are outside the skull and don't have any information are removed and then anisotropic diffusion filter is applied to the MRI images in order to remove the noise. In this paper we have tried to explain how by applying the algorithm, the tumor area is displayed on the MRI image and the central part is selected as sample points for training. Then Support Vector Machine classifies the boundary and extracts the tumor.

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18

Title : JPEG Based Compression Algorithm

Authors : Mazen Abuzaher, Jamil Al-Azzeh

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Lossy image compression algorithms provide us with very small image size with a slight loss of image quality due to compression. JPEG is one of the most popular lossy compressions, which compresses the original image to 1/10 of its original size [1]. In this work, we propose an enhancement based on JPEG compression. Our enhancement will provide us with approximately 55% smaller image compared to standard JPEG image.

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19

Title : The Influence of Autocorrelated Errors on the Bias of Multilevel Time Series Parameter Estimates

Authors : I. O. Azeez, R. A. Ipinyomi

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The validity of inferences drawn from statistical test results depends on how well data meet associated assumptions. In a two-level multilevel time series model, the standard assumption that the within-individual (level-1) residuals are uncorrelated are rarely checked or  little information tends to be reported on whether the data satisfy the assumption underlying the statistical techniques used. Using a simulation approach, the consequences of violating the level-1 independence of observations assumption on the parameter estimates of fixed effects and the associate errors due to bias was investigated. It was found that bias which is generally high, increases with increase autocorrelated errors, and Full maximum likelihood (FML) estimates are more biased than Restricted maximum likelihood (REML) estimates.

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