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Volume 3 Issue 6 (June 2016)

S.No. Title & Authors Page No View
1

Title : Conductivity Degradation Study of polypyrrole and polypyrrole/5% w/w TiO2 nanocomposite under Heat Treatment in Helium and Atmospheric Air

Authors : E. Vitoratos, S. Sakkopoulos, E. Dalas, K. Emmanouil

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The thermal aging of the d.c. electrical conductivity σ in pure polypyrrole (PPy) and in the nanocomposite PPy/5%w/w TiO2 was investigated for thermal treatment times from 0 to 50 hours at different temperatures Τ = 100, 300 and 380 K under atmospheric air and inert He gas. In both materials the fluctuation induced tunneling of charge carriers was followed revealing a granular metal structure. The isothermal variation of σ with time under atmospheric air and inert He indicates the coexistence of two antagonistic mechanisms, the one increasing and the other decreasing σ. In XRD patterns from PPy and PPy/5%w/w TiO2 the sharp peaks of rutile and anatase crystallographic types of TiO2 coexist with the broad peak of amorphous PPy. The latter shifts to smaller angles with the addition of TiO2 indicating a greater separation of pyrrole rings, which turns up to be about equal to the diameter of O2- indicating the diffuse of oxygen from TiO2 into PPy. SEM pictures confirm the removal of Cl- in the form of HCl during thermal aging, a process which decreases the conductive part of the polymer and at the same time rearranges the chains. These represent two antagonistic mechanisms the first decreasing, the second increasing conductivity.  

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2

Title : Synthesis of L-Cysteine capped ZnSe QDs and their photocatalytic activity

Authors : Radhika N, Sharmila Lydia I

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Photocatalysis is one of the most powerful tool for the degradation of dyes and textile waste water. Heterogeneous photocatalyst like TiO2, ZnO, CdS, and CdSe are mostly used semiconductor Quantum dots (QD’s).  Biocompatible ZnSe QD’s with the direct band gap 2.7eV were synthesised by hydrothermal route with amino acid namely L-cysteine. The as-synthesised biomolecules capped ZnSe QDs were characterized by UV-visible, FT-IR and PL for their optical and structural properties. The size of ZnSe QD’s was calculated by XRD analysis using Scherer’s formula.  The morphology analysis was confirmed by SEM. The photocatalytic degradation of Red 2G in aqueous solution was monitored at 556nm using UV-vis spectrometer. The degradation kinetics was found to follow pseudo-first order kinetics as seen from Langmuir- Hinshel wood model. Biomolecules capped ZnSe QDs were found to be effective sunlight responsive photocatalysts. Hence this study paves a way to use these biocompatible photocatalysts for the treatment of textile dye industry wastewater under solar light irradiation.

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3

Title : Development a practical model to designation and analysis of environmental planning strategies

Authors : Mehdi Farokhnejad, Mohammad Javad Amiri

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Environmental planning is the process of evaluating how social, political, economic and governing factors affect the natural environment when considering development. With successful environmental planning, society wins by being able to use the area in productive ways, and the environment wins by being able to sustain itself for future generations. Environmental planning needs to develop new techniques. Which they can develop strategies and solutions to be applied strategies. One of the tools that help managers and planners to develop these strategies, that is using a SWOT analysis. In this study, by making use of the analytical network method, strengths and weaknesses due to internal factors and opportunities and threats caused by external factors were identified. Based on the findings, relevant strategies for the Environmental planning of the Tehran city and the executive programs needed for their implementation were designed. These strategies are limited for operational programs and priority. At this straight by using of Analytic Network Process, which is one of multi action methods for deciding the strategies were graded. Results shows that although the presented offensive patterns ranked best among strategies, followed by conservative, competitive and defensive patterns, but it was found that the use of a combination of the above-mentioned patterns and strategies with attention to their rankings provides the best opportunity to Environmental planning in Tehran city.

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4

Title : Synthesis of Benzimidazole Derived Chalcones and their Heterocyclic Derivatives

Authors : Mohamad F.Ali, Abdulrahim M Khlafulla, Reem mohamed

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A number of benzimidazole derivatives were prepared via the condensation reaction of o-phenylene diamine with various aromatic carboxylic acids in the presence of hydrochloric acid. The acetylated benzimidazoles then allowed to react with benzaldehyde derivatives to give chalcones. In order to achieve the final heterocyclic compounds those chalcones were treated with hydroxylamine hydrochloride, hydrazine hydrate and thiourea through Claisen-Schmidt condensation. The structure of all synthesized compounds were established by physical and spectral methods.

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5

Title : Prediction of Twist at Ultimate Torque of Ferrocement U Wrapped RCC Beams

Authors : G.C. Behera, M.R.Dhal

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Wrapping technology is one of the effective ways of strengthening concrete elements. Several researchers reported the effectiveness of Glass fiber reinforced polymers and carbon fiber reinforced polymers for improving the strength of the concrete elements. Wrapping on three sides is one of the effective methods for strengthening the beams supporting slabs. Scant literature is available on the strength enhancement of “U” wrapped concrete elements subjected to torsional loads. In this investigation an attempt is made to quantify the improvement in twist of “U” wrapped rectangular concrete members subjected to torsional loads “U” wraps. Ferrocement is taken here as wrapping material. Beams were cast with different number of mesh layers with different torsional reinforcement. Beams were cast with normal and high strength mortar and concrete. Thirty beams were tested to validate the result.  The beams were analyzed with MARS. The predictions for twist at ultimate torque are in good agreement with experimental test results.

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6

Title : Shape Effects of Wind Induced Response on Tall Buildings Using CFD

Authors : Sanket Lohade, Dr. Sanjay Kulkarni

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High rise Structures are in demand due to scarcity of land in urban areas, economic growth, technological advancement, etc. Wind effect is very important for high rise structures and provides significant contribution to overall loading and serviceability. In order to provide design load and predict dynamic response, wind tunnel testing is an essential component in designing high rise building. As the wind tunnel testing is generally very expensive and time consuming, the use of CFD as an alternative to wind tunnel testing is studied. Different RCC buildings of varying shapes and aspect ratios are studied. An attempt is made to study the effect of different geometric configurations like flared, swastika, circular and tetragon of tall buildings having same plan area on Force coefficient. To study the wind effect, overturning moments, drag forces and torsional moments at base of the structures using Computational Fluid Dynamics(CFD) that is nothing but ANSYS FLUENT workbench. Then the numerical computation has been executed to validate the results of the same.

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7

Title : Sustainable Potato Production in the Philippine Cordillera Region

Authors : Ines C. Gonzales, Cynthia G. Kiswa, Arlene B. Bautista

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This study represents the collection of secondary data, focal group discussion, key informants and stake holders workshop to gather information on the existing production of potato in the cordillera region.  Results showed that in the Philippines production eventually decreased in 2011 to 2014 with 124,671.18 to 119,140.02 due to limited planting materials and low price.   Cordillera Region had the highest production of  102,255.24 mt (32%) particulary in Benguet with 89,918 metric tons with  yield of  17.38 tons/ha. Potatoes is locally grown in higher elevations of Benguet and Mt Province with an elevation of 1,200 to 2,000 masl.  They are usually being planted two times a year Feb planting and harvested at May while second cropping starts June to Sept to December, however it could be planted the whole year  round especially if they have irrigation facilities.  Potatoes are being irrigated with the used of ‘sprinkler method in which  source of water is from creek. Production cost of potato ranged from  206,400 thousand   with a ROI of 74%.  High cost includes cost of planting materials (30%) and  chemicals with  26 % of the production cost. With the introduction of clean planting materials from tissue culture production cost was lowered.  NPRCRTC and BPI-BNRDC are producing potato stem  cuttings from tissue culture and are being sold at minimal cost to the farmers at P1.00/cutting.  Igorota variety is being sold at NPRCRTC while Granola is being dispersed by BPI-BNRDC.  Dispersals was high during the months of February until April. In 2010 to 2014 the total dispersal was   estimated.  Thru the years the NPRCRTC could produced 700,000 cuttings in  year and these are being dispersed to our highland potato growers, inorder to renew their planting material and these had improved their production with 30% on thier income.  There are four farmers (2 Buguias and 2 La Trinidad) who adapted potato seed production thru the use of potato stem cuttings and was trained by NPRCRTC experts.

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8

Title : A Virtual Human Simulator for Social Behavior to Evaluate Information Flow

Authors : Daniel Costa de Paiva

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A virtual human simulator that deals with the relationship between agents, and with the transmission and publishing of information (by TV, Radio, etc.) is presented. The modeling is performed by using ontology that is a formal representation, in which we can share knowledge among agents. Cognitive aspects are considered for them; therefore, the agents can understand the environment, talk to each other and use cognition to make decisions in a better way. Moreover, the reception and transmission of information, reasoning evaluation, and the evolution of society are considered. Two possibilities are important during the simulations, (1) when the agents talk to each other or (2) when the information is just made available and the agents can perceive it. The results show the evaluation of the influence of a social network communication and of the means of mass communication activity at the dynamics of information.

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9

Title : A Numerical Study of Mixed Convection in Square Lid-Driven with Internal Elliptic Body and Constant Flux Heat Source on the Bottom Wall

Authors : M. Jahirul Haque Munshi, M. A. Alim, Golam Mostafa

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A numerical study of mixed convection in square lid- driven with internal elliptic body and constant flux heat source on the bottom wall. Mixed convection heat transfer in a two- dimensional square cavity of length (L), containing eccentric adiabatic elliptic body. The right wall heated and moving in the vertical direction while the left wall cold upward and downward lid- directions. Both the upper and lower wall adiabatic while the constant heat flux from partially heated bottom wall. Four different cases have been studied based on the location of the elliptic body. Case I, II, III and IV refer to the elliptic is located near the top, right, bottom and left walls of the cavity respectively. Results are presented for upward (+ y) and downward (- y) directions of the left lid in vertical axis and for different values of Richrdson numbers. This study is done for constant Prandtl number, Pr = 0.71.  Fluid flow and thermal fields and the local Nusselt number are presented for all four case studies. The results shows that the behavior of temperature, streamlines and velocity profile is sensitive  to the location of the elliptic body and to the direction of lid and this results explain also, that the maximum values of local Nusselt number occurs when the left lid moving downward (- y) refers to higher heat transfer.

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10

Title : Economic and Job Forecasts for the Sustainable Energy Industries in the USA

Authors : Dr. Roger H. Bezdek

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This paper presents a comprehensive definition and forecast of the sustainable energy industries in the USA to 2030.  It develops a rigorous definition of the sustainable energy industries, estimates their current sizes and composition, including technology, sales, tax revenues generated, jobs, occupations, and skills, and forecasting their growth to 2030 under three scenarios for the U.S. and Ohio.  It forecasts the growth of these industries under three scenarios:  1) a “business as usual” scenario that assumes no change in policy, 2) a Moderate Scenario that assumes that various moderate, incremental Federal and state sustainable energy initiatives are put in place over next two decades, and 3) an Advanced Scenario that “pushes the envelope” on the sustainable energy industries possible from current or impending technologies and includes what may realistically be feasible both economically and technologically in such a “crash” scenario.  It finds that the sustainable energy industries create a variety of high-paying jobs, many of which take advantage of manufacturing skills currently going unused as manufacturing continues to undergo restructuring in the U.S., and that wages and salaries in many sectors of these industries are higher than U.S. average wages.  An important implication of this study is that, while energy and the environment present many challenges, addressing these challenges also represents a potential opportunity.  Existing sustainable energy industries will have to greatly expand, new industries will have to be developed, and rapidly growing sustainable energy industries can be a major part of a new American industrial revolution engendered by the need to address climate issues and related energy and environmental challenges.

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11

Title : Flow regime mapping of liquid-solid inclined fluidized beds

Authors : K. Ashok Kumar, K. Sarath Chandra, T. Bhargavi, K.V. Ramesh

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Experiments were conducted to identify the angle of inclination of a fluidized bed so that the fluidizing condition could be retained.  Experimental set up has been specifically fabricated for this purpose with a provision for measurement of angle of inclination accurately.  Further studies were also conducted to identify different flow regimes that appear by using visual inspection technique.  It was observed that apart from fixed and fluidized beds three other regimes viz., channel flow, counter flow and circulatory flow were prominent.  The angle of inclination with horizontal axis was found to be approximately 70 degrees to retain fluidizing conditions.

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12

Title : TDS Content in bottled drinking waters

Authors : I.V.L.P.K.D. Deepika, L. Preethi, K. Gouru Naidu, K.V. Ramesh

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A total of 25 water samples used for drinking purposes in Visakhapatnam were examined for their total dissolved solids (TDS) content using standard calibrated instrument.  Among them 8 samples were obtained from sachets, four samples from one liter bottles and three samples are taken from 20 liter bottles.  It was found that the TDS levels were at a minimum of 4 ppm and at a maximum of 55, indicating that the TDS levels were very low and these waters are not suitable for potable purpose.  Almost all famous brands available in the local market have been tested.  Further, water from public RO units were found to be good with reference to TDS levels.  Also, domestic water purifiers not employing RO unit also shown good waters as their product.  It is felt that domestic water purifier with RO unit should be purchased only in case of waters with high TDS contents.  It can be inferred that the commercial drinking waters are not at all meeting the statutory requirements and not good for human health if consumed for longer periods.

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13

Title : Flow regime mapping in gas-liquid flow in micro-channels

Authors : K. Ashok Kumar, S. Lokesh, K.T.V. Nagendra, K.V. Ramesh

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Experiments were conducted in a micro-channel with square cross-section with each side being 3 mm.  Gas-liquid flow is employed for determining the flow patterns with water being liquid phase and nitrogen being gas phase.  Over a wide range of gas and liquid velocities the flow patterns were studied using visual inspection technique.  It is found that four types of flow regimes occurred within the range of variables considered in the present study.  These are bubble flow, slug flow, channel flow and transient flow.  A flow regime map is also constructed.

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14

Title : Documentation as Format to Challenge Software Architecture in Extreme Programming Method

Authors : Kamyar abdolmohamadi , Mansour esmaeilpour , Mohammad Mehdi shirmohammadi

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As we know the software development methods are divided into two old and agile methods. Old methods which are based on design and program have many problems regarding the changes. Change of customer needs from system, change in technology development, and change in software development environment facing the software development to serious problems. Agile methods are samples of software development methods which emphasize on rapid progress, speed, and flexibility regarding the changes. But these methods also have weak points. Agile methods have diverse ways to development which one of the most popular one is extreme programming concerning its operation. This method also has both challenges and weaknesses. One of these challenges is related to little attention to qualitative characteristics and software architecture activities. Different solutions are suggested to solve this challenge. Each of these solutions has its own weaknesses and fails to present a suitable approach. In this article, we are going to present an approach to solve this challenge. The suggested approach is designed in a way which tries to find a relation between architecture and challenge way, and achieve to both qualitative characteristics and software architecture advantages so that it is compliant with the values and agility principles of extreme programming.

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15

Title : Comparison PID and MPC Control, applied to a binary distillation column

Authors : Anderson Rigoberto Cuenca S, Jose Leonardo Benavides M, Manuel Augusto Pesantez G.

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Using binary distillation column in the industry is currently imperative, the reason why the control parameters that are highly nonlinear necessary to apply classic strategies as advanced control and raised here. These techniques are the PID controller and the MPC; the data that are to perform the calculations are of IFAC event whose mixture is alcohol with water. Finally with the help of software MATLAB® / Simulink simulations for comparing which of the two drivers is the best delivery results when controlling the composition on the bottom, top and pressure in binary distillation column performed.

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Title : A review paper on Vapour deposition coating

Authors : Vishakha S. Pahade, Pankaj S. Chavan, Vaishali P. Baisane

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With the demands of lower cost, higher accuracy, better surface finish, and shorter process time in the precision engineering industry, high-speed machining of high hardness materials including hardened tool steels has become increasingly important. To improve the performance and to extend the life of the cutting tools, various types of vapour deposition coatings have been developed. Vapour deposition coatings for high-speed machining consist of multiple layers because of the requirements for high-adhesion strength to the substrate, high-thermal stability, high hardness, a low-friction coefficient, and good compatibility. The present techniques used to produce these coatings include physical-vapour deposition (PVD), and chemical vapour deposition (CVD).Traditionally used coatings like TiN, CrN, and their alloyed nitride coatings, have high hardness and good adhesion strength on common materials used in the tooling industry. However, these coatings have poor performance in high-speed machining applications, especially in the cutting of hardened tool steels, because of phase transition (oxidation) at high temperature. This research work gives the introduction about PVD and CVD.

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17

Title : Focusing on Induced Virtual Water

Authors : Ankit Pahade, Pranay Khare

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The earth’s surface is filled nearly 70% of water but only 3% of this water can be used as potable water. In present days with rapid urbanization and rapid increase in population water conservation has become a major issue. Now days, reduced water consumption is one of the most important objectives of many towns and cities as part of the trend towards more sustainable strategies. As around we see when construction of buildings takes place, there is lot of wastage of water occurs on site, this can be reduced to great extent by using new materials and various innovative techniques. This paper gives various materials and new techniques to reduce consumption and wastage of water on construction site.

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Title : Design of Micro-Controller Based Automatic Electrical N/S source switcher Between 3 Electrical Sources: University Hassan the first Morocco Data Centers energy effectiveness use development

Authors : Zakarya Benizza, Ahmed Mouhsen, Anis Kirama

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The automatic electrical N/S sources switcher, is build using a PIC16F877A micro-controller and electrical input/output sensors. This system is programmed in C language using the MikroC compiler. It's accurate, smart, flexible and easily configurable. It is designed to automatically get instantaneous measurements of the currents; Voltages delivered by three sources of energy, also the levels of photovoltaic batteries, the level of diesel and, also temperature inside and outside of the server room. And to deduct the consummate power and the power factor from it.  And to switch towards the suitable source of energy according to the parameters configured in its program. The measurements are collected with repetitions rate tuneable from one to sixty minutes, are archived in an application especially developed for this system, and displayed on a LCD central monitor. The processing of these information’s relating to the instructions configured by the operator, allowed to connect with efficiency the Data center, on one of the three source of electrical energy: Normal source ONE (Moroccan electricity provider), first Emergency photo-voltaic source, and the generating diesel source.

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19

Title : Construction of Asymmetric Fractional Factorial Designs

Authors : J. A. Adepoju, R. A. Ipinyomi

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In this paper, a method of constructing Asymmetric Fractional Factorial Designs, (AFFD) is presented. This method is based on the extension of a similar concept for symmetric fractional factorial designs (SFFD). A factorial design consisting of n factors is said to be symmetric if, and only if, each factor has the same number of levels, otherwise it is called and asymmetric factorial design. The confounded interactions, and the corresponding confounded degrees of freedom, were determined. The aliases structures and the class of resolution achieved by the constructed designs were determined. Each design obtained and listed achieved a minimum of Resolution III or higher level.

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20

Title : Influence of nanoparticles on the effectiveness of heat exchanger and associated pressure drop

Authors : N.Seshaiah, C.V Subba Reddy

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Heat exchanger is the essential device for almost all the industrial process heating and cooling equipment. Heat is transferred from one fluid to other by the mode of convection and conduction through the wall of the heat exchanger. Effectiveness of heat exchanger depends on the overall heat transfer coefficient. Heat transfer coefficient of pure water, Al2O3-water, CuO-water, and Fe2O3-water nanofluids has been studied. This paper addresses experimental results of the transient and turbulent region of forced convective heat transfer of water based nanofluids compared to that of distilled water. Four different concentrations of nanofluids in the range of 0.5% to 2% by mass have been prepared for Al2O3, CuO and Fe2O3. These nanofluids of different concentrations flows through counter flow heat exchanger. Different parameters affecting the heat transfer characteristics were studied and the influence of each parameter is noted. The overall heat transfer coefficient has been calculated with respect to associated pressure drop. 

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21

Title : Computationally Intensive Medical Application Using Mobile Device and Raspberry PI

Authors : Branislav Mados, Nikola Cichovska, Marian Zorkovsky, Mikulas Fedorcak

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Paper deals with the problematics of the use of mobile devices (smartphones, tablets) in computationally intensive medical applications using specialized hardware and software solutions for collection, processing, evaluation and presentation of medical data which are acquired in real-time from patient body. Design of the application, compatible with two mobile platforms, that receives electrocardiogram (ECG) data from auxiliary device Raspberry Pi, processes and evaluates them, is described in the second part of the paper along with the results of the testing of designed application.

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22

Title : Development of 3D model for part of Hyderabad city

Authors : J.Swaraj, Dr. M. Anji Reddy

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Urban models are computer-based simulations used for testing theories about spatial location and interaction between land uses and related activities. They also provide digital environments for testing the consequences of physical planning policies on the future form of cities. As computers, software and data have become richer, and as our conception of the way complex systems such as cities grow from the bottom up have been reinforced, urban models have moved from theories and structures that articulate land use and movement in aggregate static terms, to more dynamic models of individual behaviour from which spatial structure emerges.

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