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Volume 3 Issue 2 (February 2016)

S.No. Title & Authors Page No View
1

Title : Allelochemicals of Three Amazon Plants Identified by GC-MS

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The aim of this study was to realize the evaluation of the allelopathic activity of 83 vegetable species from Allpahuayo – Mishana Reserve in Peruvian Amazon, and to determine the main polar components of three species of that showed high activity. Leaves samples were collected, which were subjected to elution for two weeks to get the methanol extracts e to test the inhibition of the roots of pre-germinated seeds of Lactuca sativa. These extracts were dried in a rotary evaporator and the product subjected to column fractionation opened using silica gel No. 100, using as mobile phase methanol and obtaining the fractions according to the appropriate retention time, and meet the fractions containing similar molecules through analysis of thin layer chromatography; which were tested to evaluate their allelopathic activity against pre-germinated seeds of Lactuca sativa. In this way it was found that three species showed activity in extracts, these were the Iryanthera ulei, Duroia hirsuta and Theobroma obovatum. When performing the analysis on GC-MS. was found compounds as terpenes, phenolics and organic acids, as the following: isoeugenol, catechol, humulene in I. ulei; limonene, geranic acid, neric acid, homovanillil alcohol in D. hirsute; phenol. 2,4-bis (1.1-dimethylethyl), α ionone in T. obovatum and phytol in each.

1-7
2

Title : Effect of GFRP Wraps on HSC Columns Strengthened with GFRP with Different Steel Ratio

Authors : Dr. Eiad Hafiz. Zahran

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Experimental investigation was conducted to study the pure compression and ductility behavior of high-strength concrete (HSC) columns strengthened with glass fiber reinforced polymers (GFRP) having different stirrup spacing and different main steel ratio. A total of twenty four columns were tested. The variables of this research are spacing of main stirrups, percentage of main steel and number of layers of (GFRP). The experimental program includes testing of two main groups (G1 and G2). Group G1 consists of three groups of columns (H1,H2 and H3), each group consists of four columns (medium scale specimens), all specimens with overall length 1200mm, columns are square with a dimensional 120 mm and main steel (4Ø6).The considered parameters were the number of layers (1-without layer, 2-one layer, 3-two layers). Variable stirrup spacing, the spacing of stirrup reinforcement was [1) without stirrups, 2) 500 mm, 3) 300 mm, 4) and 200 mm]. Group G2 consists of three groups of RC columns (C1, C2 and C3), and each group consists of four RC columns with spacing between stirrups are 200mm. the main variable between each group is number of layer (without layer, one layer, two layers). For columns each group consists of variable ratio of main steel, the ratio of longitudinal reinforcement were [0% (without main steel), 0.785% (4Ø6), 1.09% (2Ø6 + 2Ø8), and 1.395% (4Ø8)]. Four columns without GFRP were assigned as control columns in each main group and the rest were strengthened using GFRP sheets. In this study, different wrap configurations and the effect of different numbers of GFRP plies. Investigation into ductility using two different concepts showed enhancement in the behavior of strengthened columns with GFRP. The experimental results were compared with the results from analytical methods.

8-12
3

Title : Survey Paper on Emotion Recognition

Authors : Prachi Shukla, Sandeep Patil

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Facial expressions give important information about emotions of a person. Understanding facial expressions accurately is one of the challenging tasks for interpersonal relationships. Automatic emotion detection using facial expressions recognition is now a main area of interest within various fields such as computer science, medicine, and psychology. HCI research communities also use automated facial expression recognition system for better results. Various feature extraction techniques have been developed for recognition of expressions from static images as well as real time videos. This paper provides a review of research work carried out and published in the field of facial expression recognition and various techniques used for facial expression recognition.

13-15
4

Title : Cold Rolling Mill for Aluminium Sheet

Authors : Dr. P. Mallesham, V.V. Ram Babu

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Rolling aluminum and its alloys is one of the principle ways of converting cast aluminum slab from the smelters and wrought re-melts into a usable industrial form. By hot rolling, it is possible to reduce a slab of about 600 mm thickness down to plate material with thicknesses of 6 – 250 mm and further down as low as 2 mm for subsequent cold rolling to sheet with thicknesses as low as 0.2 mm. Further rolling can produce the thinnest of foil with a thickness as low as 0.006 mm, approximately one-third the thickness of a human hair. Aluminum rolling has very short history of about two centuries. The technology of rolling has matured and stabilized in the last decade or so , with sophistications resulting in higher degree of refinement and richness of final product. Aluminum rolling processes, principles &applications seeks to fill a perceived gap in published information available, which addresses both the theory and practice of aluminum rolling in a comprehensive manner. Although primarily focused on rolling, the book takes a much broader view, covering the entire production processes from ore to finished sheet, plate or foil product the author uses an analytical approach throughout the book and discusses various important aspects of the subject like cold rolling, hot rolling, foil rolling, quality control and technical extensions. The book is used to industrial professionals in production and marketing of finished products. It will also be helpful to the professional students and university, Who will find a good base to work further in this field.

16-20
5

Title : Pressure Ulcers and Decubitus Patients

Authors : Iliadis Christos, Mihalache Anca, Dimitriadou Alexandra

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Introduction: Pressure ulcers means cellular necrosis of a region of the body caused by a deficiency of microcirculation in tissues. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to present all the data about pressure ulcers and their treatment method. Methodology: For this reason it was performed an extensive review of the literature that is relevant to the addressed issue. Results: The pressure ulcer is a localized destruction of the skin area and underlying tissue which develops as a result of prolonged ischemia of tissues because of the pressure on the skin. This occurs in deceits patients that are placed in the same position for a long time and are involved all systems and organs of the human body such as skin, muscles, bones, circulatory, brain, kidneys and lungs. Conclusions: The pressure ulcer is a major issue that may cause significant problems for the health of the patient.

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6

Title : Geological-Geotechnical characterization of the sedimentary basin of Loja and its correlation in the Foundations of Civil Works

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This article presents a characterization of the present practice in training San Cayetano and Quillollaco of the Hoya de Loja; what allows us to understand the behavior of the thin soils cohesive, the groundwater level and the measures to stabilization of soils with constructive purposes.

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7

Title : A Factor Model to Explain the Hydrochemistry and Causes of Fluoride Enrichment in Groundwater of Bhairmgarh Block in Bijapur District, Chhattisgarh, India

Authors : Rubina Sahin, Kavita Tapadia, Ghanshyam Jareda

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High fluoride (>1.5 mg/l) in groundwater has been reported from many States of India. To understand the chemical behaviour of fluoride (F-) in groundwater water in terms of local hydrogeological setting, aquifer level, climatic conditions and agricultural practices.  In the study, a factor model was developed to determine the major hydrochemical processes that control the variations and dissolution of fluoride-beraing minerals in groundwater of Bhairmgarh block of Biapur district in Chhattisgarh. A total of 36 groundwater were collected and of F- chemically analyzed. The results of chemical analyses (pre-monsoon 2012) show F- abundance in the range of 0.14 to 4.7 mg/l with 25% of the samples in excess of permissible limit of 1.5 mg/l. Present study finds that four major processes control the hydrochemistry of groundwater resources in the  study area: dissolution of soluble salts in the aquifer, high pH and Na+ concentration, maximum retention time and dissolution of bicarbonate minerals in the aquifers. Two major groundwater types have been distinguished in this study: fresh Na-Ca-HCO3 groundwater type and Na-Ca-Cl- HCO3 groundwater type. Presence of F- bearing minerals in the host rock, the chemical properties like decomposition, dissociation and dissolution and their interaction with water is considered to be the main cause for F- in groundwater. The suggested remedial measures to reduce F- pollution in groundwater include dilution by blending, artificial recharge, rainwater utilization, well-organized agricultural practices and well construction.

29-35
8

Title : Colorimetric Determination of Indole using 2,4,6-trimethoxybenzaldehyde

Authors : Wafaa M. Yousef, Saad A.Al-Tamrah, Basmah H. Al-Shammari

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Indole is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound. The indole nucleus is very important for many natural and synthetic molecules with significant biological activity. Compounds that contain an indole ring are called indoles. Indoles are an important class of heterocycles not only because they are among the most ubiquitous compounds in nature, but also because they have a wide range of biological activities. 2,4,6-Trimethoxybenzaldehyde can be used as antibacterial synergist.  When indole was mixed with 2,4,6-trimethoxybenzaldehyde at room temperature, no color was observed. However in the presence of concentrated hydrochloric acid, a brown red complex is formed which has a maximum absorbance at 488 nm. The parameters affecting this reaction were studied in order to find the suitable conditions for the reaction to complete. The effect of the acid concentration, the reaction temperature and the amount of the reagent on the determination of indole- 2,4,6-trimethoxybenzaldehyde complex were investigated. The system requirements and the best conditions for complete determination are sequently studied. At the optimal conditions, 0.02% w/v 2,4,6-trimethoxybenzaldehyde, 4M HCl at 60oC, were used for the determination of indole , At these conditions, it was found that the absorbance is directly related to the concentration of indole. Different concentrations of indole over the range from 0.25-1 μg ml-1 were reacted with the reagent. The detection limit (signal : noise 3:1) was 0.02 µg ml-1 and the correlation coefficient was 0.995, Linearity was obtained with slope equals 0.608and the intercept equals 0.000..

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9

Title : Efficient Computation of Range Aggregates Against Uncertain Location Based Queries in Multi Dimensional Space

Authors : R.Saravanan, S.Gokulakrishnan, T.V.Sampath

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In many applications, including location based services, queries may not be precise. In this paper, we study the problem of efficiently computing range aggregates in a multidimensional space when the query location is uncertain. Specifically, for a query point Q whose location is uncertain and a set S of points in a multi-dimensional space, we want to calculate the aggregate (e.g., count, average and sum) over the subset SI of S, Q has at least probability θ within the distance γ to p. We propose novel, efficient techniques to solve the problem following the filtering-and-verification paradigm. In particular, two novel filtering techniques are proposed to effectively and efficiently remove data points from verification. Our comprehensive experiments based on both real and synthetic data demonstrate the efficiency and scalability of our techniques.

40-42
10

Title : Investigation on the Selection of Piezoelectric Materials for the Design of an Energy Harvester System to Generate Energy from Traffic

Authors : Hiba Najini, Senthil Arumugam Muthukumaraswamy

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This article investigates various existing piezoelectric materials and the structures of the piezoelectric transducers. Then the article explores the idea of using the electricity generated using piezoelectric elements and compares the energy requirement of this era of power electronics. Then, the most compatible piezoelectric transducer for producing sustainable energy from the road traffic was analyzed using the finite element analysis. This included the various structural designs of the piezoelectric harvester designs to determine the performance of the piezoelectric material. The structures focused on this article are namely the Pile type, Multilayered, Thunder, Bridge, Cymbal and Moonie piezoelectric generators. The finite element analysis was also used to categorize the chemical behavior of various piezoelectric elements. After which, the article focuses on the two main types of implementation of the piezoelectric generators on the road to produce the sustainable form of energy. This energy is captured by harnessing the wasted vibration and kinetic energy due to the moving vehicles on the surface of the road. These two main types of implementation include the cantilever beam type implementation such as the bimorph with a tip mass, which requires a fixed support. The other implementation was based on embedding the piezoelectric transducers into the road to harvest the strain and kinetic energy due to the vehicles directly.

43-49
11

Title : Emerging NanoFETs and Electrostatics Influencing Nanoscale Transistors: A Review

Authors : Deepthi Amuru, Dr.K.Ragini, Dr.P.ChandraSekhar Reddy

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As the dimensions of transistors shrink, the close proximity between the source and drain reduces the ability of the gate electrode to control the potential distribution and the flow of current in the channel region because of which undesirable short channel effects starts plugging in MOSFETs. For all practical reasons, it seems to be impossible to scale the dimensions of classical bulk MOSFETs below 20nm. To satisfy Moore’s law in nanometer regime, the evolving nanotransistors are the promising alternatives to the planar MOSFETs. Nanotransistors reduce the short channel effects with improved device performance in terms of reduced power supply, power dissipation, leakage currents and improved scalability. This paper discusses about the challenges for scaling the transistors in nanoscale regime and also gives an insight on various types of emerging nanotransistors.

50-55
12

Title : Causes of sound wave on the moon

Authors : Zhe Yin, Dongxu Liu

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This paper propose the time and place of producing sound waves on the moon.

56-58
13

Title : Review on Low Power energy efficient VLSI circuits using Adiabatic logic

Authors : Sarada A, Dr.K.Ragini

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The ever-growing number of transistors integrated on a chip and the increasing transistor switching speed in recent decades has enabled great performance improvement in computer systems by several orders of magnitude. Unfortunately, such phenomenal performance improvements have been accompanied by an increase in power and energy dissipation of the systems. Higher power and energy dissipation in high performance systems require more expensive packaging and cooling technologies, this in turn increase cost, and decrease system reliability. Demands for low power electronics have motivated researchers to explore new approaches to reduce power consumption and energy dissipation in VLSI circuits. The classical approaches of reducing power consumption, energy dissipation in conventional CMOS circuits included reducing the supply voltages, node capacitances, switching frequencies and recycling energy back to power supply respectively. In this paper a review about subthreshold operation, adiabatic logic and adiabatic logic in subthreshold region.

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14

Title : Introduction to Security Protocols for Sensor Network

Authors : Surender Kumar

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Wireless sensor networks will be widely deployed in the near future. While much research has focused on making these networks feasible and useful, security has received little attention. We present a suite of security protocols optimized for sensor networks: SPINS. SPINS has two secure building blocks: SNEP and TESLA. SNEP includes: data con dentiality, two party data authentication, and evidence of data freshness.. We implemented the above protocols, and show that they are practical even on minimal hardware .the performance of the protocol suite easily matches the data rate of our network. Additionally, we demonstrate that the suite can be used for building higher level protocols.

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15

Title : 2D FEM Analysis of Slippage Phenomenon in Earth and Rockfill Dams

Authors : Nishtha Saraswat

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Dams are gaining more attention in recent years due to the rise of the environmental awareness and ‘renewable energy’ and ‘sustainability’ concepts. Earth embankment dams are preferred over gravity dams for the ease of construction and economical advantage. Despite considerable advances in the field of geotechnical engineering, the occurrence of frequent destructive earthquakes during the past decade and the trend towards construction of structures of unprecedented size and of novel designs has enhanced the importance of earthquake resistant structural design. Rock-fill dam is a type of earth dam where a compacted central clay core is supported from the rock shells by a series of transition zones built of properly graded material. In recent years, rock-fill dams, especially the impervious-faced rock-fill dams (IFRD), are built all around the world using asphalt or concrete as the impervious material in the upstream face of the dam. This paper analyses the slippage phenomenon in the core-shell interface of earth and rock-fill dams with the aid of ANSYS16.2 package. The software was first validated then used to examine the slippage in Tehri Dam, which is located in the seismically active region of Himalayas. A 2D fem analysis is done by modelling the dam as a linear, elastic, non-homogenous material. The slippage phenomenon is modelled using contact element feature of ANSYS. Among the variables, the non-homogeneity of the core and shell material and coefficient of friction is considered in the analysis. On evaluation it is found that core settlement increases where core-shell influence has been considered.

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16

Title : Ground Water Contamination in Coal Mining Areas: A Critical Review

Authors : Shiv Kumar Gupta, Kumar Nikhil

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Ground water is becoming a major concern with respect to surface and underground mining of coal in many state of our country coal fields. Ground-water quality is being  addressed in this review paper. Despite the new emphasis placed on ground water by regulatory authorities, the effects of coal mining on ground water are still poorly understood. It is the intention to elaborate on general aspects of ground water, and to share with some results of research done in our country.

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17

Title : Batch Adsorption of Ammonium Ions from Synthetic Wastewater using Local Cameroonian Clay and ZnCl2 Activated Carbon

Authors : Zing Zing Bertrand, Belibi Belibi Placide Desire, Ankoro Naphtali Odogu, Kouotou Daouda, Ndi Julius Nsami, Ketcha Joseph Mbadcam

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Local Cameroonian clay and ZnCl2 activated carbon were used for the adsorption of NH4+ ions from synthetic wastewater. The Batch adsorption experiments were conducted and optimal conditions were established to better understand the effects of solution pH, initial ammonium ions concentration, adsorbents dose and contact time. The time-dependent experimental studies showed that, the adsorption quantity of ammonium ions increases with initial concentration and decrease with adsorbents dose. The ammonium ions uptake was very fast and reached equilibrium within 10 and 15 min with ZnCl2 activated carbon and Soukamna Clay. Both ZnCl2 activated carbon and Soukamna Clay gave best adsorption results at pH 2 and 6. FTIR, powder X-ray diffraction, chemical analysis, TGA and DSC analysis were used to characterize the Soukamna Clay. The adsorption equilibrium were confronted using Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and D–K–R isotherm models and their applicability were judged by comparing the correlation coefficients and the experimental calculated quantities. The D–K–R, Temkin and Freundlich isotherms models best fitted to the experimental data for Soukamna Clay while the D–K–R isotherm model fitted well with ZnCl2 ̵ AC. The adsorption mechanism was analyzed using the pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, the Elovich kinetic and intra-particle diffusion models. The pseudo-second order kinetic model correlates better the experimental and calculated data than the other three kinetic models which suggests that, chemisorption was more dominant with both adsorbents. Soukamna Clay and ZnCl2 ̵ AC used successfully as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of NH4+ ions from aqueous solution can have promising application in industrial wastewater treatment.

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18

Title : Design and Simulation of Phase-Locked Loop Controller Based Unified Power Quality Conditioner Using Nonlinear Loads

Authors : C.Prakash, N.Abner Leo

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This project presents a power quality improvement of unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) to compensate current and voltage quality problems of sensitive loads. The UPQC consists of the series and shunt converter having a common dc link. The series converter mitigates voltage sag from the supply side and shunt converter eliminates current harmonics from the non linear load side. The developed controllers for series and shunt converters are based on a reference signal generation method (phase-locked loop). The dc link control strategy is based on the fuzzy-logic controllers. The conventional method using dq transformation to show the superiority of the proposed sag detection method. A fast sag detection method is also is presented. The efficiency of the proposed system is tested through simulation studies using the MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. 

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19

Title : Intellectual parachute monitoring system based on twisted fiber optic sensors

Authors : Oleg G. Morozov, Gennady A. Morozov, Mikhail Yu. Zastela

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For any parachute system, it is important to predict the opening forces it will experience in order to make a safe and economic choice of materials to be used. Pre-design researches on creation of the built-in parachute parameters monitoring system that can be used both at a stage of its tests, and at stage of its control for the purpose of its characteristics management are resulted. Fiber optic sensor based on two twisted fibers with the locked ends offered by us for this purpose does not demand lamination, is indifferent to a temperature field, and provides a wide dynamic range of measurement as pressure and tension of parachute elements. Developed fiber optic sensors have variable twisting step and have been used for creation of intellectual knots of perspective vehicles, in particular, parachute canopies and slings. We decided to change our measuring procedure from checking of transmitted power or its Rayleigh scattering in different ends of twisted fibers onto Brillouin scattering characterization. For this situation, we offered the kind of frequency variation method to get the information about the frequency shift and Q-factor of the Brillouin scattering in each sensor.

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