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Volume 2 Issue 4 (April 2015)

S.No. Title & Authors Page No View
1

Title : All-Solid-State PVC Membrane Fe (III) Selective Electrode based on 2-Hydroxymethyl-15-crown-5

Authors : Omer Isildak, Omer Durgun

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Abstract :

A novel potentiometric sensor based on ionophore (2-Hydroxymethyl-15-crown-5) for the determination of Fe3+ ions is developed. The Fe3+-selective membrane sensor demonstrates high sensitivity and short response time. The detection limit of the Fe3+-selective membrane sensor was about 1.2 ×10−6 mol L-1 and the response time was shorter than 8 s. The linear dynamic range of the Fe3+-selective membrane sensor was between 1.0 × 10−1 and 8.0 × 10−6 mol L-1 Fe3+ concentration. The Fe3+-selective membrane sensor exhibited good operational stability for at least two month keeping in dry conditions at 4–6 ◦C. It had a reproducible and stable response during continuous standard deviation of 0.34% (n = 30).

1-5
2

Title : Synthesis of High Molecular Weight Polystearylacrylate and Polystearylmethacrylate Polymers via ATRP Method as Thermal Energy Storage Materials

Authors : Derya Kahraman Doguscu, Cemil Alkan

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Abstract :

In this study, poly(stearyl acrylate) (PSA) and poly(stearyl methacrylate) (PSMA) homopolymers were produced via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) method from stearyl acrylate (SA) and stearyl methacrylate (SMA) monomers. Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy techniques were used for structural characterization as thermal energy storage characteristics and thermal stability property were determined by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques respectively. The average onset phase transition temperatures of the PSA were measured as 48.1 and 43.5 °C as those of PSMA were measured as 30.8 and 23.5 °C respectively. The averages of latent heats of phase transitions were 100.2 and -81.5 J/g for PSA and 55.8 and -44.8 J/g for PSMA respectively. In addition, PSA and PSMA were found thermally durable up to considerably high temperatures compared to possible ambient temperatures. Molecular weight analysis measurements were performed using gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and number average molecular weights of synthesized polymers was found in the range of 58000-439000 g/mol. Based on the results, PSA and PSMA polymers are potential materials for thermal energy storage applications. 

6-11
3

Title : A Review: Increase in Performance of Vapour Compression Refrigeration System Using Fan

Authors : Shireesha Mary Ch, Nandini Ch, Divya Samala, Siva Kumar B, Parthasarathy Garre

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Abstract : Refrigeration is the process of removing heat from a closed body or space enclosed so that its temperature is first lowered and then maintained at a required level which is below the temperature of surroundings. There are many types in refrigeration cycle the vapour compression cycle is taken for the case study, because the vapour compression refrigeration system is by far the most popular and widely used system in refrigeration for both industrial and domestic applications. In vapour compression refrigeration system a refrigerant readily evaporates and condenses depending up on the pressure and temperature during the cycle, therefore, refrigerant undergoes a change of phase alternately between liquid and vapour phase without leaving the system. In this case several assumptions were made in order to analyze the system, like isentropic process at the compressor, a isenthalpic expansion in the throttling valve. It is found that this may have been because at higher fan speed, convection coefficient increased, increasing heat transfer in the evaporator and condenser with the surroundings, thus reducing the work of the compressor to the refrigerant. Vapor compression cycle was more efficient with fans of evaporator and condenser at highest speeds.
12-14
4

Title : Driving License Test Automation Using VB

Authors : Komal A. Margale, Priyanka M. Pawale, Amruta A. Patil, Jyoti Waykule

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Abstract : The System presented in this paper expedite the testing of candidates aspiring for a driving license in a more efficient and transparent manner, as compared to the present manual testing procedure existing in most parts of Asia and Pacific region. The manual test procedure is also subjected to multiple limitations like time consuming, costly and heavily controlled by the experience of examiner in conducting the test. This technological solution is developed by customizing 8051 controller based embedded system and VB based virtual instrument. The controller module senses the motion of the test vehicle on the test track referred to as zero rpm measurement. The proposed technological solution for the automation of existing manual test process enables the elimination of human intervention and improves the driving test accuracy while going paperless with Driving Skill Evaluation System. As a contribution to the society this technological solution can reduce the number of road accidents because most accidents results from lack of planning, anticipation and control which are highly dependent on driving skill.
15-18
5

Title : Work Force Diversity

Authors : Dr. Shine David, Devashish singh Jadoun, Mohit Singh pejwal, Himanshu Yadav, Mujjamil Ali

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Abstract :

Diversity management is process of creating and maintaining the workforce which is embalmed in the nutshell of sex, caste, religion, gender race etc. Diversity is today the main word behind the globalized era of creating a diversify culture blend in with organization culture for notable outcomes with talent management workforce diversity has faced various issues with rise in globalization thus giving organsation to adept from the roots diversity tools and techniques. It is based on a survey of 103 employees. The study derives conclusion that successfully confronting diversity management can lead to more dedicated, better satisfied, better performing employees and potentially better cost-effective performance for an organization. The researcher after examining the journals and various practical papers, concluded that workforce diversity is strength for any organization if managed properly, can increase the productivity.

19-22
6

Title : High efficiency multi-junction solar cell design

Authors : Amit Kumar Senapati, Manjit Bahadur Singh

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Abstract : Energy from the sun is the best option for electricity generation as it is abundantly available everywhere and sustainable source. Advance of Photovoltaic (PV) technology in recent years has made solar energy one of the practical alternative energy sources available in the energy market. In order to make the PV energy more affordable and cost effective, major focus of the research community and industry is improvement on power efficiency of PV systems. Early stage of solar panel manufacturing known as process technology plays a crucial role in achieving above limits. This paper presents a novel process technology for solar panel with 6 junctions.
23-27
7

Title : A Study of gender perception regarding Performance Management Systems in the organisations

Authors : Dr. Shine David, Yasha Bakshi, Poorva Mittal, Mohammad Fahad

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Abstract : This paper aims at studying the similarities or differences in gender perception on various parameters of performance appraisal system in their respective organisations. Data has been collected from 150 employees engaged in private sector with minimum 1 year of experience in a particular organisation. The respondents belong to different types of organisations ranging from IT, pharmaceutical, education, Textile etc. The result of the research suggests that the Gender perception varies largely due to failure of organisation to create a healthy culture to promote gender sensitization, and the Gender perception is quite similar due to transparent Performance Management System and Policy. The significant difference in Gender perception is in the area of development planning. The study found that this is due to lower attention paid in career planning of one of the gender. Besides this, gender perception varies in the areas of Job Analysis, Gender sensitization at work place and consulting employees in finalization of decision making process. Apart from these difference Gender perception was found to be similar in many areas such as satisfaction on goal setting, performance evaluation, 360 degree feedback, Training received, Reward and Incentives. This suggests that the organisational policies are fair and equitable. Also the perception is found to be similar in about the understanding of Performance Management System of the organisation, mentoring process in the organisation, the compensation given to the employees. These evidences regarding similarities and differences in the perception of employees regarding the system indicate that the organisations want to implement the fair and equitable Performance Management System but they fail to create an environment within their organisation that could encourage its employees to implement suitable Performance Management System.
28-32
8

Title : Integral solutions of the heptic equation with five unknowns

Authors : S.Vidhyalakshmi, A.Kavitha, M.A.Gopalan

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Abstract : The non-homogeneous Diophantine equation of degree seven with five variables represented by is analyzed for its non-zero distinct integer solutions. A few interesting relation between the solutions and special numbers namely Polygonal numbers, Pyramidal numbers, centered Polygonal numbers are exhibited.
33-35
9

Title : Some Characterized Projective δ-cover

Authors : R. S. Wadbude

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Abstract : In this paper we characterize some properties of projective δ-cover and find some new results with δ-supplemented module M. Let M be a fixed R-module. A δ-cover in M is an δ-small epimorphism from M onto P. These concept introduce by Zhou [14]. A δ-cover is projective δ-cover( M-projective δ-cover) in case M is projective.
36-38
10

Title : Doped InSb Detached Crystals by VDS Technique: Its Substrates for Infrared Devices and Physics Concept

Authors : Dattatray Gadkari

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Abstract : In this paper, the vertical directional solidification (VDS) detached crystal growth process in our laboratory in which a gap exists between a growing crystal and the ampoule wall is described. However, this phenomenon is more complex due to the hydrostatic pressure, and the existence of the buoyancy convections. Important characteristics of the detached growths are the self-stabilizing gas pressure difference and self-detachment crystal growth process into VDS on earth. The hydrostatic pressure decreases during the growth, the pressure at the bottom decreases such that the liquid meniscus remains unchanged all along the growth axis. Gap formation mechanism is not totally understood yet, but experimental observations can be seen that the gas passing upwards inside ampoules for grown ingots presence of the thin oxide layer. Detachment in VDS is self controlled and the self-applied pressure difference should be of the order of the hydrostatic pressure. In our references, characterization of high quality InSb and doped InSb substrates suitable for use in the infrared devices, and VDS technologies to deliver larger substrate is explained. Here, the physics behind detached growth and technology to develop the junction devices from these substrates is highlighted.
39-44
11

Title : Design, fabrication and testing of pyramidal horn antenna

Authors : G.Abhignya, B.Yogita, C.Abhinay, B.Balaji, MBR Murthy

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Abstract : Horn antennas are widely used in areas of wireless communications, electromagnetic sensing, nondestructive testing and evaluation, radio frequency heating and biomedicine. They are also widely used as high gain elements in phased arrays and as feed elements for reflectors and lens antennas in satellite, microwave and millimeter wave systems. Moreover, they serve as a universal standard for calibration and gain measurements of other antennas.An optimum pyramidal horn with gain 20dB and center frequency 9.5GHz is designed. Using the design values two horn antennas are fabricated using aluminum sheets of different thickness namely 1mm and 2mm. The performance parameters like gain, directivity, impedance and s parameters are evaluated. The results are discussed.
45-47
12

Title : Chemistry of Knowledge Elements: Elements of Knowledge as Elements In Nature

Authors : Syed V. Ahamed, Sonya M. Ahamed

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Abstract : In this paper, we propose that knowledge can be reduced to its elementary (elemental) size consisting of quantized noun objects, their quantized verb functions, and the incremental type the convolutions that bind such noun objects and verb functions. Though knowledge may not be quantized as matter can be quantized in quantum sciences, it is possible to fragment knowledge finely enough to ask three basic elements; who does what, what is being done, and how is what being done. Such a bundle that answers these three questions makes up one knowledge element. These elements of knowledge (kels) exhibit statistical properties and their dynamics are be based on the properties of a large variety of kels, their origin, their environment, the media, and their recipients. Further, we define the elementary particles as a kuantum of knowledge, even though a kuantum is not a quantum in the traditional sense. In maintaining a working relation with other sciences, we explore the flow of these kels. A quantum of knowledge (kel) is like a particle of matter or a pulse of energy. We present this concept to investigate if such kels will explain all the intricacies in the flow of knowledge in societies, cultures and groups. Even though a kel is not as defined precisely as quantum (an electron) in physics, but in the framework of theory presented here, the statistical properties of kels explains a statistical differences in the way in which noun objects communicate i.e., transmit and receive such kuanta and kels. This approach holds the maximum promise but the quantization of a kel to a workable size becomes unique and depends on the direction in which knowledge is being explored and/or constituted. The generic quantum of knowledge or kel still appears as a mystic entity, even though specific kuanta are feasible that the modern computers can tackle, build, process, constitute, reconstitute, reprocess to generate “artificial knowledge”. Such artificial knowledge is then verified, validated and accepted or challenged, disputed and rejected by AI routines and by natural intelligence of human beings to build large and realistic bodies of knowledge (bok’s) or knowledge centric objects (kco’s) of any size, shape or form .
48-54
13

Title : A Study on Hierarchical Model of a Computer Worm Defense System

Authors : Basheer Suleiman, Rashid Husain, Saifullahi Muhammad

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Abstract : This research addresses the problem of computer worms in the modern Internet. A worm is similar to a virus. A worm is a self-propagating computer program that is being increasingly and widely used to attack the Internet. It is considered as a sub-class of a virus because it is also capable of spreading from one computer to another. Worms are also computer programs that are capable of replicating copies of themselves via network connections. What makes it different however is that unlike a computer virus a computer worm can run itself without any human intervention? Because of these two qualities of a worm, it is possible that there will be thousands of worms in a computer even if only one computer worm is transferred. For instance, the worm may send a copy of itself to every person listed in the e-mail address book. The worm sent may then send a copy of itself to every person who is listed in the address book of the person who receives the email. Because this may go on ad infinitum worms can not only cause damage to a single computer and to other person’s computer but it can only affect the functionality of Web servers and network servers to the point that they can no longer function efficiently. One example is the .blaster worm.
55-59
14

Title : Resource-Based Analysis of E-Commerce Business Value

Authors : Dr.Shine David, Aditi Bansal, Kirti Singh, Swati Rajput

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Abstract : In this study, we developed a set of constructs to measure e-commerce capability in Internet savvy customers. Our study has two dimensions customer awareness and customer experience, which consist of factors such as information, transactions customization and supplier connection. This conceptual framework provides good theoretical platform for empirically grounded research on how customers perceive e-commerce trading. E-commerce is the pre-eminent buzzword of the online business revolution. Electronic commerce is the paper less exchange of business information using electronic data interchange (EDI).This study aims to understand how people view e-commerce as an emerging trend in lieu of their satisfaction and preferences with products, services, safety of personal data etc.
60-63
15

Title : Different Hybrid Neural Network in Inverse Design

Authors : K.Thinakaran, Dr.R.Rajasekar

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Abstract : Here, we investigate a different hybrid neural network method for the design of airfoil using inverse procedure. The aerodynamic force coefficients corresponding to series of airfoil are stored in a database along with the airfoil coordinates. A feedforward neural network is created with input as a aerodynamic coefficient and the output as the airfoil coordinates. In existing algorithm as an FNN training method has some limitation associated with local optimum and oscillation. The cost terms of the first algorithm are selected based on the activation functions of the hidden neurons and first order derivatives of the activation functions of the output neurons. The cost terms of the second algorithm are selected based on the first order derivatives of the activation functions of the hidden neurons and the activation functions of the output neurons. Results indicate that optimally trained artificial neural networks may accurately predict airfoil profile.
64-68
16

Title : A New Improvement of Conventional PI/PD Controllers for Load Frequency Control With Scaled Fuzzy Controller

Authors : Aqeel S. Jaber, A. Z. Ahmad

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Abstract : Load Frequency Control (LFC) is one of the important issues in power system operation. The main objective of LFC is to keep the frequency and tie-line power close to their nominal values in case of disturbances. In this paper, two methods based on parallel adaptive of a scaled fuzzy with conventional technique to control the frequency of a power system is proposed. A particle swarm optimization (PSO) method is used to optimize the scales of fuzzy-PI/PD and gains tuning of PI/PD controllers. Two equal interconnected power system areas are used as a test system. As the results, the simulation has shown the effectiveness of the proposed controller compared with different PID and scaled fuzzy controllers in terms of speed response and damping frequency.
69-74
17

Title : Wood Preservation: Improvement of Mechanical Properties by Vacuum Pressure Process

Authors : Md. Fazle Rabbi, Md. Mahmudul Islam, A.N.M. Mizanur Rahman

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Abstract : Wood, being a biological product, is liable to deterioration unless it is properly protected. The main reasons of deterioration of timber in service are decay due to fungal infection, attack by insects (borers and white ants), marine organisms and fire. Protection of wood is carried out from these agents by using preservative which can properly be used by proper design of preservation plant. Proper design of such plant is very essential to increase the lifespan of wood economically. Among the various wood preservation techniques, pressure processes are the most permanent technique around the world today. In the Full cell process, wood is allowed to absorb as much liquid chemicals as possible during the pressure period, thus leaving the maximum concentration of preservatives in the treated area. Usually, water solutions of preservative salts are employed with this process but it is also possible to impregnate wood with oil. The desired retention is achieved by changing the strength of the solution. A Full cell pressure wood preservation system was designed and constructed in Mechanical Engineering Department of KUET and its performance was tested. The pressure cylinder was constructed using locally available materials and different physical properties of wood were measured. It was observed that the weight of wood reduces due to loss of moisture, density, retention, penetration of preservatives into wood due to pressure in the cylinder. The penetration is more or less uniform throughout the surfaces.
75-79
18

Title : Wind loads on Y plan shape tall building

Authors : Ravinder Ahlawat and Ashok K. Ahuja

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Abstract :

An experimental study was carried out on the models of ‘Y’ plan shape tall building in an open circuit wind tunnel to investigate the wind loads generated on the building in isolated as well as interference condition. The base shear (Fx), overturning moment (My) and torsional moment (Mz) acting on the instrumented model were measured. For the isolated condition, the measurements were made for many wind incidence angles. For studying the interference effects, two similar building models were placed in side-by-side configuration and tandem configuration and the spacing between these models were varied. It is observed that the wind incidence angle greatly affects the wind induced loads on the ‘Y’ plan shaped building. Depending on the position of the interfering building, the interfence effects may either be beneficial or may have an adverse effect.

80-83
19

Title : Wind Pressure Distribution on Trough Canopy Roofs

Authors : Pradeep Singh, Ashok K. Ahuja

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Abstract : Wind tunnel experiments are carried out to obtain the wind pressure distribution on trough canopy roof. The model made of Perspex sheet at a scale of 1:100 is tested in open circuit wind tunnel under boundary layer flow. Effects of wind incidence angle are studied y changing wind angle. Values of wind pressure coefficients are calculated from the values of wind pressures measured at numerous pressure points on upper and lower surfaces of the trough roof and are reported in the form of cross sectional variation of pressure coefficient and pressure contours. It is observed that the wind pressure distribution on the trough canopy roof is highly influenced by incident wind direction.
84-87
20

Title : Improving The Scalability And Efficiency Of K-Medoids By Map Reduce

Authors : Mr D Lakshmi Srinivasulu, Mr A Vishnuvardhan Reddy, Dr V S Giridhar Akula

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Abstract : Day to day the size of data increased enormously. Big Data concerns large-volume, complex, growing data sets with multiple, autonomous sources. With the fast development of networking, data storage, and the data collection capacity. Big Data is now rapidly expanding in all science and engineering domains, including physical, biological and bio-medical sciences. Mining knowledge from the large amount of data is a challengeable task. Map Reduce is a programming model and an associated implementation for processing and generating large data sets. Map reduce is one of the technique to achieve parallelism. map function that processes a key/value pair to generate a set of intermediate key/value pairs, and a reduce function that merges all intermediate values associated with the same intermediate key . Programs written in this functional style are automatically parallelized and executed on a large cluster of commodity machines. The run-time system takes care of the details of partitioning the input data, scheduling the program’s execution across a set of machines, handling machine failures, and managing the required inter-machine communication. This allows programmers without any experience with parallel and distributed systems to easily utilize the resources of a large distributed system. In the perspective of clustering, grouping of similar of objects from big data is a challengeable task .In order to deal with the problem; many researchers try to design different parallel clustering algorithms. In this paper, we propose a parallel K-Medoids clustering algorithm to improve scalability without noise and efficiency based on Map Reduce.
88-90
21

Title : Applying systems approach to driver behaviour analysis

Authors : Oluwasegun Aluko

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Abstract : Driver behaviour is an important subject in road safety research. Investigations into this subject have often been conducted using qualitative and statistical methods. However, due to the temporal and spatial gap between actions and their consequences in real life, this paper argues that these methods are not the most suitable approaches to understanding and dealing with this safety problem. In the first instance, these methods tend to identify a sequential course of action and treat causal factors linearly. In contrast, this paper suggests the use of systems analysis and causal loop diagramming which help to view a system holistically as well as identify the circular nature of processes in a system. In this way, it often becomes unimportant to identify a factor as a cause or an effect. This paper goes further to demonstrate the use of this analysis method with the risky behaviour of commercial motorcycle drivers. It concludes by showing that a combination of actions will be more suitable than a sequential policy implementation being currently adopted in dealing with this safety problem.
91-96
22

Title : Single Phase Dynamic Voltage Restorer for Abnormal Conditions

Authors : C.Jayashankar, R.Ilango, V.Prabaharan

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Abstract : Power quality is one of the major concerns in the era of power system. Power quality problem occurred due to non- standard voltage, current or frequency, that result in a failure of end user equipment. To overcome this problem, Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) is used, which eliminate voltage sag and swell in the distribution line, it is efficient and effective power electronic device. The size of DVR is small, cost is low and fast dynamic response to the disturbance. By injecting an appropriate voltage, the DVR restores a voltage waveform and ensures constant load voltage. The compensating signals are determined dynamically based on the difference between desired and measured values. The DVR is consisting of VSC, Booster transformer, Filter and Energy storage devices.
97-101
23

Title : Power Quality Improvement for Non Linear Load by Using DSTATCOM

Authors : B. Silvin Daniel, R. Ilango, V. Prabaharan

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Abstract : The researchers are more importance to power quality problems. Various power quality problems are voltage sag, voltage swell, harmonics, interruptions etc. This paper proposes to reduction the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) in power system. The total harmonic distortion is reduced using distribution static compensator (DSTATCOM). An Instantaneous d-q theory has been used for controlling switching converter which calculates the required current injected into the power system. The simulated results show the effectiveness of DSTATCOM in reducing the harmonic distortion.
102-106
24

Title : Online Exam Cell and Result Analysis Automation

Authors : Aditya Rao, Abhishek Ganesh, Stuti Ahuja

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Abstract : Current exam-cell activities are mostly done on paper. Automated solutions using this system will make exam department activities more efficient by covering for the most important drawbacks of manual system, namely speed, precision and simplicity. A centralized system will ensure that the activities in the context of an examination can be managed effectively, while also making it more accessible and convenient for both students and staff. The final product would constitute a computerized module aimed at replicating offline exam cell process. The system is a new concept which came into existence because of the large amount of data being on paper and it made analysis of results a tedious task, apart from the unmanageable amount of data that is generated in an institution from various departments. The Automation system is like an intermediary between staff and students, thus easing the activities of each regarding examination. It is a system that will make the exam cell process much organised. It would require certain crucial data to be pre-existing, which definitely suggest a dependency on certain other systems, especially ones concerning data acquisition. Like in this case it is Automated Admission system. The Solution, however, will manage a great deal of menial work. This keeps paperwork to its minimum, leading to ease of accountability, reducing confusions and increase in work rate and efficiency. The project will address firstly, access to various users including students, teacher, exam cell staff and admin. Then customization based on requirement of College. And finally automated result analysis and ancillary services.
107-109
25

Title : Design of Logic Gates Using CNTFETs

Authors : S.V.Srikanth, S.S.N.L. Venkateswara Rao, M.Murali Krishna

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Abstract : Carbon Nanotube (CNT) is one of the emerging nano technology, which is showing high efficiency and it has wide range of applications in many different streams. The properties of Carbon Nano Tube Field Effect Transistors (CNTFETs) have been studied and are observed to be the promising candidate for the integrated circuit (IC) devices. These are widely studied as possible successors to silicon MOSFETs. In this paper the standard model has been designed for, MOSFET-like CNTFET devices. Various logic gates were designed using CNTFETs; their delays are obtained and compared with CMOS. Hspice simulations have been performed on various logic gates that are designed using the modeled CNTFET.
110-113
26

Title : Using Adaptive Web Systems for Education Process in the Preparation of Web Programmers

Authors : Dr. Aripov Mersaid and Fayziyeva Mahbuba

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Abstract : The current rapid development of informational and communication technologies, and wide-format digital telecommunication means and Internet systems, their wide application in every sphere of society is achieved through widespread networks of WWW and located on a regular basis of current Web project. The main purpose of learning the Web technologies is to give the students scientific and theoretical knowledge on information processing in the managerial information databases using Web technology and integration with the database management system (DBMS). The main task of learning is to form in students knowledge, skills and experience with database management systems data, to study modern methods of creating Web projects and also their design and creation. This requires the creation of adaptive Web systems, and the development of teaching methods corresponding to the intellectual abilities of the student. In the present article it is talked about the features of adaptive educational web-based system in preparing the web programmers.
114-117
27

Title : PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL: An Empirical Study to understand Job Satisfaction and Motivation of personnel through the system

Authors : Dr Parveen Prasad

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Abstract : Drawing upon existing literature, this study investigated the relationship between Job satisfaction and Motivation of personnel through the system of Performance Appraisal (PA). A study of 115 personnel from various industries found a positive correlation between job satisfaction and motivation with the performance appraisal system of the organization. The results of the study indicate positive constructs related to PA as objectivity and transparency, PA culture and system, feedback, performance impact, attrition, and compensation. Furthermore, it strengthens the argument that organizations must design and administer their performance appraisals with care, frequency and use it more as a development tool to enhance its effectiveness for generating productivity.
118-125