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Volume 2 Issue 12 (December 2015)

S.No. Title & Authors Page No View
1

Title : Voltage Regulation by Adaptive PI Control of STATCOM

Authors : K. Harinath Reddy, B. Murali Mohan, S. Pravallika Rani

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To Maintain Voltage Regulation A STATCOM Provides The Fast And Efficient Reactive Power. In order to understand various STATCOM control methods are discussed in the literature. But in those methods they use the trail and error approach methods so the performance is trade off. so at different operating points the control parameters may not be effective for the optimal performance. In order to overcome this problem an adaptive control technique came in to picture, in which the control gains automatically self adjusted as per our desired response  even with the change of operating condition that’s why we named as autonomous adjustment. In the simulation test, the adaptive PI control shows consistent excellence under various operating conditions, such as different initial control gains, different load levels, change of transmission network, consecutive disturbances, and a severe disturbance. when there is a change of system conditions the conventional STATCOM control with tuned, fixed PI gains usually perform fine in the original system, but may not perform as efficient as the proposed control method.To Maintain Voltage Regulation A STATCOM Provides The Fast And Efficient Reactive Power. In order to understand various STATCOM control methods are discussed in the literature. But in those methods they use the trail and error approach methods so the performance is trade off. so at different operating points the control parameters may not be effective for the optimal performance. In order to overcome this problem an adaptive control technique came in to picture, in which the control gains automatically self adjusted as per our desired response  even with the change of operating condition that’s why we named as autonomous adjustment. In the simulation test, the adaptive PI control shows consistent excellence under various operating conditions, such as different initial control gains, different load levels, change of transmission network, consecutive disturbances, and a severe disturbance. when there is a change of system conditions the conventional STATCOM control with tuned, fixed PI gains usually perform fine in the original system, but may not perform as efficient as the proposed control method.

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2

Title : A Chronological review on application of MARXAN tool for systematic conservation planning in landscape

Authors : Sorour Esfandeh, Mohammad Kaboli, L. Eslami-Andargoli

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This paper reviews the major contributions to the systematic conservation planning in landscape with Marxan software throughout a 11-year period from 2005 up to 2015. After surveying many papers in this field, the volume of the existing works is identified and classified. The paper summarizes all of the reviewed papers in two tables. These tables determine the region of study, year of study, selected information for planning, and main contributions in papers. The socio-economic information along with the biophysical information is considered in the majority of papers for planning, which shows the vital function of this information for decision. It is also demonstrated that more attention is paid to systematic conversation planning using toolboxes based on optimization algorithm such as Marxan in recent years. It concludes with comparative graph demonstrating the frequency of applying Marxan software in systematic conservation planning in landscape. So, it can be used as a guideline for researchers in this field.

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Title : Multivariable Control of a Binary Distillation Column

Authors : Jose Leonardo Benavides Maldonado, Jorge Michael Valarezo, Darwin Tapia Peralta

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This work is present students of University National of Loja in the southern Ecuador and associated people with the oil industry. Two strategies to control some parameters of a binary distillation tower, such as LQR (Linear Quadratic Regulator) and another in intelligent control such as fuzzy logic controllers. With purpose of comparison with the help of MATLAB® software and Simulink® the benefits offered by the use of either strategy in the oil industry.

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Title : Synthesis of Zn-B-P/Al/Al2o3-Acylation Catalyst Diethylamino M-Toluic Acid under Exposure to Radiation of Microwave Range

Authors : P.A. Muradova, V.F. Tretyakov, S.M. Zulfugarova, R.M. Talishinskiy, Yu.N. Litvishkov

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The paper presents the results of microwave synthesis of an active energy absorbing microwave radia-tion Zn-B-P-oxide catalyst supported on the surface of the fiber reinforced aluminum Al/γ-Al2O3-carrier to further intensification of the process of acylation diethylamine m-toluic acid diethylamide, m-toluic acid (DETA ) under the effect of the microwave field. Established the identity of the phase composition of the active mass of the samples formed un-der the action of microwave radiation (2450MHz) with the phase of the catalyst composition prepared by conventional heat treatment, which considering their more developed active surface also gives rea-son to expect a manifestation of higher catalytic efficiency.

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5

Title : Throughput and Delay Analysis in a Real Time Network

Authors : Umeh O. A., Akpado K.A., Okechukwu G. N., Ejiofor H. C.

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The aim of this paper is to evaluate the throughput and delay performance of IEEE802.11 WLANs using different network performance monitoring tools. It also shows detailed procedure on how to use these network monitoring tools (NetStress, Wireshark and Jperf) to monitor a real time network.  The study was carried out to establish the effects of varying the number of work stations against the network performance in a real WLAN environment.  The result shows that maximum throughput and minimum delay can only be achieved in the non saturated case, that is, it is dependent on the number of active nodes.

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6

Title : World Trade Organisation and its Impact on Agriculture: An Overview

Authors : Dr. Rina Dave, Dr. Dhaval Dave

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After new economic policy 1991 Indian economy is to the process of transition. WTO and its structural formation has been helping member countries for hassle free international trade by providing platform. There are various functions being performed by WTO. In this paper evolution, functions and its impact on agriculture is discussed. The data on agricultural imports as a proportion of earnings from agricultural exports has progressively declined, and all the balance has become progressively more favorable.

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7

Title : An Evaluation of Smart Electricity Meters in Noisy Electromagnetic Environments

Authors : Ashraf Gaber Hassan, Sohair F. Mahmoud, Hadia El Hennawy

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Abstract :

Due to increasing of electronics and digital circuits in all sides of daily life, the electromagnetic pollution is increasing daily. The performance of electronic and electrical equipment is much influenced by this electromagnetic pollution. Now day most of energy meters are still electromechanical. But due to the advantages of smart meters, the conventional meters are being replaced by them. As part of a smart grid, smart meters will be everywhere, and not always in the most ideal operating conditions (inside transformer rooms or near to mobile phone base stations). So these EM noises might affect the performance of meters. EMI/EMC evaluation has thus become necessary to ensure that these meters work satisfactorily in the present day environment. Investigations of the performance of smart meter under radiated electromagnetic disturbances will be studied in this paper. Their performance characteristics with respect to the ones measured in absence of electromagnetic field will be compared. 

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8

Title : Energy intensity and carbon market for climate justice

Authors : Ashok Kumar Singha

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Climate change and global warming is a major concern. Future generation will suffer if the low carbon development strategy is not adopted by nations today. The Conference of Parties (COP21) recognizes the menace of global warming, emissions and also emphasizes the differentiation between the responsibilities of developed and developing nations. This legally binding agreement also gives a boost to carbon market in the interest of climate justice to transfer mitigation outcomes. This paper analyses the linkage of development of the states and the carbon market. The result show significant correlation between carbon market development and development of a state. It also tries to provide insights whether there is a possible pathway to achieve climate justice at the sub-national level (between developed and developing states in India) or in the sectoral scopes. The paper uses macro data and some case studies to emphasize the idea of climate justice at the sub-national level.

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9

Title : The Performance of Tourism Sector and Economic Growth in Nigeria (1996-2010)

Authors : Ojo. Thompson Olabode (Ph.D), Oyekunle. Janet Oluwafunmike, Olaleye. O.A.

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This study employs the Granger causality test within a multivariate cointegration and error-correction framework to investigate the relationship between tourism arrival, tourism receipts and economic growth in Nigeria. This study covers the annual sample from 1996 to 2010. The main findings of this study are that in the short-run there is uni-directional Granger causality running from tourism arrival and tourism receipts to gross domestic product in Nigeria. While, in the long-run tourism arrival, gross domestic product and tourism receipts are bi-directional Granger causality. Hence, sound and developed tourism sector growth that can attract investors, boost the stock market, industrialization and urbanization and improved efficiency of economic activities via tourism activities should not be left out from the process of economic growth and development in Nigeria.

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10

Title : Biological Diversity of Kingdom Animalia at the Hakri River, Hapcheon-gun, Korea

Authors : Man Kyu Huh

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This study was conducted the ecological biodiversity of animals and analysis of environmental factors at the Hakri River in Korea during 2015 season. The fauna of four surveyed stations was a total of 69 taxa, representing five classes. Birds (Aves) exhibited the greatest species diversity with 20 taxa identified, followed by invertebrates (15 taxa); mammals with 12 taxa, reptiles/amphibians (Sauropsida/Amphibia) with 11 taxa, and fish represented by 11 taxa. Shannon-Weaver indices (H´) for mammals and birds at upper region were higher than those of low region. Richness indices for animal taxa were also varied among the stations and seasons. Although evenness indices for five animal kingdoms during seasons were different from each other, there were not shown significant differences (p < 0.05). Berger-Parker’s index (BPI) for mammals was varied from 0.121 (invertebrates at Station A) to 0.304 (reptile /amphibian at Station A). The Bray-Curtis’ distances were calculated from differences in abundance of each species according to geographic distances among four stations at the Hakri River. The relationship between a distance matrix and a quantitative environmental variable was shown very strong. The dendrogram showed two distinct groups; Station A and Station B clade and the other stations (Station C and Station D).

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Title : A simple way to check on the assertions of damage from climate change

Authors : Wallace Manheimer

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Many have taken the position that the planet is in danger because of carbon dioxide input to the atmosphere caused by burning fossil fuel, they urge us to stop and consider it a moral imperative.  They present specific assertions of the harm this added CO2 in the atmosphere has done or will do.  But how can anyone check out these claims of this harm, actual or potential?  With the advent of the Internet, it can be as simple as doing a Google (or other search engine) search.   This paper does just that.  There is a tremendous amount of information available at the click of a button.  This data is not at all controversial; it has no political agenda (i.e. there are many charts available, all about the same).  This information is used to check out these claims of gloom and doom.  The data presented here indicates that these claims are either wildly exaggerated, or else concern processes that have been occurring at about the same rate since long before CO2 in the atmosphere increased.  Furthermore it also emphasizes the fact that the use of fossil fuel has been, and continues to be, the main cornerstone, which has allowed civilization to advance.  It has alleviated abject poverty for billions, and there is no substitute for it at this time.  End the use of fossil fuel, and this worldwide poverty returns.  Thus there is also a strong moral argument for the use of fossil fuel.  If this use of fossil fuel, at some time in the future, does begin to pose a climate risk, the solution is not simply to end it, but rather to balance competing priorities.

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12

Title : Mining Local Patterns from Fuzzy Temporal Data

Authors : Fokrul Alom Mazarbhuiya

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Mining patterns from datasets having fuzzy time attributes is an important data mining problem. Some of these mining task are finding locally frequent sets, local association rules etc Most of the earlier works were mainly devoted on mining non-fuzzy temporal datasets .In this article, we propose a method extracting locally frequent itemsets from fuzzy temporal datasets. The efficacy of the method is established with the help of an experiment conducted on a synthetic dataset.

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13

Title : Kinetic Study of the Rate of Retting of Empty Plantain Fruit Bunch Fibers

Authors : Obijiaku J.C., Kamalu C.I.O., Osoka E.C., Onyelucheya O.E., Nwakaudu M.S., Okwara C.A.

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Empty plantain fruit bunch fibers were extracted by means of water retting. The kinetics of the water retting process was critically studied based on the fluid-particle (shrinking-core) kinetic models. Four size categories of group of six bunch samples each were used for the experiment, and the fit of experimental data to proposed models were studied using MATLAB curve-fitting toolbox. Results for the water retting experiment showed that the retting is significantly enhanced by the addition of a load/weight on the retting bunch, while the analysis (curve-fitting of the models with experimental data) confirmed the diffusion of the retting fluid (water) through the layer of fiber bundles (ash-layer) as the controlling resistance. Statistical analysis produced similar results as those of the kinetic study, revealing an enhanced retting with longer retting period, smaller bunch sizes, together with addition of weight during retting. This is revealed by the obtained optimum (minimum) bunch diameter of 2.40cm with a bunch sample size of 4.0cm, when retted for a period of 16days by the addition of the greatest load of 5kg stone weight. The fiber extracted finds use in the manufacture of reinforced composite materials which are fast replacing the use of metallic and plastic materials, due to the quest for materials that are light and cheap, yet strong.

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Title : Synthesis and Characterization of Water- Reducible Alkyd Resin from Cottonseed Oil

Authors : Ezidinma Timothy. A, Onukwuli D.O, Uzoh C.F.

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Medium oil water-reducible alkyd resin was synthesized by polyesterification reaction of commercially refined cottonseed oil with glycerol and maleic anhydride patially substituted with trimellitic anhydride in lithium hydroxide catalytic process and copolymerized with polyethylene glycol. A predictive mathematical model was obtained to predict the acid value and viscosity as functions of polybasic acid/oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, reaction time, and rate of mixing. The optimal conditions for the production of alkyd resin was found to be MA/oil ratio 0.38:1, temperature 240.610C; catalyst concentration 0.38% reaction time 150mins and mixing rate 600rpm.At these  conditions  87% conversion was achieved producing water- reducible  alkyd resin with acid value of 15mgKOH/g. Pyscochemical and performance evaluation of the resin showed that it can satisfactorily substitute for convetional alkyd resins in situations where minimal volatile organic compound emission is desired.

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15

Title : Determination of Caffeine, the Active Ingredient in Different Coffee Drinks and its Characterization by FTIR/ATR and TGA/DTA

Authors : Mohammad A. Abdalla

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In this article a special attention has been given to the use of FTIR/ATR, a unique accessoryof Fourier Transform Infra-red Spectroscopy. This technique uses attenuatedtotal reflectance accessory(ATR) as a sampling system for determinationand quantification ofcaffeine contentin coffeesamples at the wavenumber(cm-1)of the pure caffeine spectrum selected between (1600-1700 cm-1) where any possible traces ofchloroform does not show any absorption[1]. Attenuated Total Reflectance accessory represented a simple technique that requires a very little samplepreparation [2]. In order to reach a meaningful approach of sample characterization, Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) hasbeen included in the research to identify the thermal properties of coffee samples selected for the study[3].The targeted coffee samples represented the coffee samples consumed,particularly: Arabian coffee blend home-made, roasted coffee blend home-made,instant coffee bought from the market and pure caffeine analytical reagent bought from SigmaChemicals.

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16

Title : Voltage Sag Analysis in Loop Power Distribution System with SFCL

Authors : R. Madhan mohan, M. Padma lalitha, Y. Raja sekhar

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In this paper, the effects of a superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) installed in loop power distribution systems on voltage sags are assessed and analyzed. The power distribution system will be operated to a type of loop. In this case, voltage drops (sags) are severe because of the increased fault current when a fault occurs. If SFCL is installed in the loop power distribution system, the fault current decreases based on the location and resistance value of the SFCL, and voltage sags are improved. In this paper, the improvement of the voltage sag is analyzed according to the fault location, resistance value of SFCL, and the length of the loop power distribution system. First, a resistor-type SFCL model is used using the PSCAD/EMTDC. Next, the loop power distribution system is modeled. Finally, when the SFCL is installed in the radial or loop power distribution system with various lengths, voltage sags are evaluated according to various fault locations. The results of voltage sag analysis in the loop system are compared with the voltage sags in radial power distribution system.

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17

Title : Phytotoxicity of Citronellol Against Amaranthus Viridis L.

Authors : Supriya Vaid

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A study was undertaken to explore the phytotoxicity of citronellol, a volatile monoterpene found in Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. and many other aromatic plants, against the weed Amaranthus viridis L. in order to assess its herbicidal activity. Dose-response studies conducted under laboratory conditions revealed that citroellol (in concentrations ranging from 0.1µL to 2 µL) greatly suppresses the germination and seedling height of the test weed. At 2 µL concentration of citronellol, none of the seeds of the test weed germinated. At 1 µL concentration of citronellol, the radicle height of the test weed was reduced to a mere 28% and the plumule height was reduced to about 40% compared to control. Not only the germination and seedling growth, even the chlorophyll content and respiratory activity in the leaves of emerged seedlings of A. viridis were severely affected. The chlorophyll content and respiratory activity were reduced by about 30% and 60%, respectively, even at a very low concentration of 1 µL. These results indicated an adverse affect of citronellol on the photosynthetic efficiency and energy metabolism of the test weed. A strong negative correlation was observed between the concentration of citronellol and the observed effect. Based on the study, it can be concluded that citronellol possesses strong inhibitory potential against weeds that could be exploited for weed management.

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Title : Mathematical Modeling of a Ship Motion in Waves under Coupled Motions

Authors : Aung Myat Thu, Ei Ei Htwe, Htay Htay Win

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In this paper, research area is emphasized on motion of a ship due to anti- symmetric coupled motion of roll-yaw and sway-roll-yaw. This paper also expressed wave forces, hydrodynamic coefficients and 2-DOF and 3-DOF model of a surface vessel and its motions. The required hydrodynamic coefficients and wave forces are obtained from integration of sectional added-mass, damping and restoring coefficients, derived from Frank’s close-fit conformal mapping method. The governing equations for motion equations are solved numerically by using Runge-Kutta method. The vessel used in this analysis is monohull vessel type which is 28 m long. In the calculation of floating body motions, two-dimensional added mass, damping, and excitation for each ship sections are solved out. The governing equations comprised of second order ordinary differential equation that come from equation of hydrodynamic forces and external exciting forces. This paper describes the complete model of Tug and its numerical calculation solves with Matlab.

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Title : A cryptographic method to send a secret route or map to a receiver using concepts in graph theory and number theory

Authors : S.A.S. Sureni Wickramasooriya, Thisal M. Weerasekara, G.H. Jayantha Lanel, T.P. de Silva, N.C. Ganegoda

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Even though new solutions for   problematic situations arising from security norms are developing day by day, possibly there are some issues remaining on our hand yet to be tackled. Among those one of the major problem for almost every country might experience is routing and mapping secrecy. In detail, when sending someone’s route of some places or sending a map of protectorate places, its secrecy is the most important factor to be considered. In this study a system is developed which could be used to send a route of a particular person or a map of some specific secret place in a secret manner. Concepts in graph theory and number theory together with some cryptographic algorithms are used to develop this system. In brief, the route or map is transformed into a graph which might be directed or non-directed. Then it simplified in to a numerical value which could be encrypted by applying particular encrypting algorithm. Thereafter, encrypted numerical code is sent to the receiver. Once receiver receives that unreadable code then he/she applies decrypting algorithm on that to obtain the original numerical value. Finally, the graph can be derived from that numerical value and it could be regarded as the map or route that has been sent. However different methods are followed to send the map or route due to the directivity of the graph. Although there are some restrictions and assumptions which have been made during the process, there may be possibilities to further improve this system.

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Title : Preparation and Application of Polyvinyl Alcohol Based UV Curable Flexographic Printing Ink

Authors : A. A. Salisu, H. Abba, M. S. Inuwa

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Polyvinyl alcohol was utilized as a single sole binder in the formulation of water based UV curable flexographic printing inks. Six different formulation composition containing 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 8% and 10% polyvinyl alcohol were prepared using 1-(4-nitrophenyl)azo-2-naphthol as pigment and potassium dichromate as a cross linking agent. The formulations prepared were characterized for viscosity and FT-IR before being printed on different substrates. The integrity and pigment particle distribution of the ink film formed were assessed by optical microscopy, the print quality and fastness properties were found to meet most requirements in colour printing chemistry and technology applications.

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Title : Controlling the Heat Transfer by Controlling the Composition of A Cooling Nano-fluid

Authors : Khaled M. K. Pasha

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1)  the first part of the present work is an experimental investigation of the convective heat transfer from a circular tube at constant wall heat flux. The working Nanofluid in these experiments is composed of alumina Nanoparticles, which are dispersed in  water at concentrations of (0.0 %, 0.3 %, 0.5%, 0.7% and 1%), respectively, and this Nanofluid flows in a hot tube at two values of Reynolds number,  Renf , 8676 and 13000.

2) the second part is a repetition of  the experiments of the first part, after Equipping the test rig with a control unit, which is designed to control the concentration of Nanoparticles in the base fluid, as required. The results from the two parts are compared as a reliability check for the designed control unit. The present work is intended to be a step towards a future work, in which, the experimental data of the variation of Nusselt number with the Nanoparticle concentration are fed  to this control unit, in order to manage the thermal behavior of the large engine cooling systems, in order to meet the requirements of a specific application.

The results of the experiments showed an accepted agreement with the previous work, and the Nusselt number is possible to be effectively controlled, using the designed control unit.

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Title : A sustainable management of the hydric deficit in Large Sousse (Tunisia): local solutions to reduce the interregional transport of water

Authors : Nadia Sahtout, Mohamed Taoufik Bouzidi, Noureddine Mzoughi

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The city of Sousse and its suburbs is confronted with a strong human and socio-economic attraction, but paradoxically, this area is very underprivileged on the hydric level. The transport of water from the surplus areas’ water towards the overdrawn areas of Tunisia will not be able henceforth to constitute a durable solution because of a saturated network of adduction and distribution. A new vision of urban water management seeks to guide users towards a more rational behavior and to encourage the production of unconventional water.  We present in this article a test of quantification of the water produced and scenarios of demand evolution from a prospective analysis. 

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Title : Wood Finger-Joint Strength as Function of Finger Length and Slope Positioning of Tips

Authors : Besnik Habipi, Dritan Ajdinaj

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A study was carried out to analyse the relation of slope positions of fingers tips and finger length with regard to bending strength of poplar (Populus alba L.) and silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) finger joints, bonded with polyvinyl adhesive. There were produced three finger lengths, 6, 10 and 14 mm, as well as four series for each finger length and species, with 16 test pieces for each series. The first one with tips in straight vertical line and three others with tips in slope direction, respectively with slope angle 10°, 20° and 30°, referring to the first one direction. With regard to fingers with tips in slope position were respected the same values of length and pitch. Modulus of Rupture (MOR) and Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) of finger joints were measured according to norms ISO 13061-3 and ISO 13061-4. Results showed that static bending strength was strongly influenced by the length of finger. For longer fingers the strength resulted higher. This relationship was referred to the rate finger length/pitch from 1 to 2.3. With regard to position of fingers tips, the angle 10° showed the best performance for all three finger length taking into account. By the other hand, modulus of elasticity wasn’t affected in a distinct manner neither by the slope angle of fingers tips position, nor by the finger length. We can say that “scarf-finger joint” with slope angle of 10°, has a better performance with regard to MOR in static bending strength, presenting so a good opportunity for industrial application.

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Title : Improving Efficiency of an Amorphous Silicon (p-a-SiC:H/i-a-Si:H/n-a-Si:H) Solar Cell by Affecting Bandgap and Thickness from Numerical Analysis

Authors : Md. Feroz Ali, Md. Faruk Hossain

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In this investigation hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC:H) solar cell has been investigated and characterized by using the Analysis of Microelectronics and Photonic Structures (AMPS-1D) simulator. Although some works have been done to simulate this type of solar cell but by affecting the bandgap and thickness to improve the efficiency is the first time investigation which is reflected in this paper. The p-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide (p-a-SiC:H) with the thickness of 15 nm, the hydrogenated interface amorphous silicon (i-a-Si:H) with the thickness of 300 nm and the n-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon (i-a-Si:H) with the thickness of 15 nm are used to obtain the efficiency of 19.649% which is comparatively higher than the conventional Si solar cell’s efficiency (11%-14%). Most of the data of this simulation has been transferred to the graph.exe (a graph plotting software) to plot the characteristics curves. This paper provides a new approach of improving the efficiency of hydrogenated amorphous Silicon solar cell. 

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Title : Simulation and Observation of Efficiency of p-n Homojunction Si Solar Cell with Defects and EBL by Using AMPS-1D

Authors : Md. Feroz Ali, Md. Faruk Hossain

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In this work, p-n Si homojunction solar cell with defects and Electron Blocking Layer (EBL) has been simulated and investigated by using Analysis of Microelectronic and Photonic Structures (AMPS-1D) simulator in respect to overall performance. The optimum performance and efficiency has been investigated by changing the thickness of the p-layer and n-layer Si with bandgap and thickness and bandgap of both defects layer and EBL. After completing the simulation all data from AMPS-1D has been transfer to the gragh.exe (graph plotting software) software to plot some of the graph in this paper.  At the thickness of 4500 nm of each p-layer and n-layer Si with bandgap of 1.82 eV and 50 nm of both defects (1.82 eV bandgap) and EBL with 2.00 eV bandgap the maximum efficiency of 29.434% has been investigated and this type of solar cell has been proposed in order to fabricate and implement in laboratory which is reflected in this paper.

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Title : Development of Industrial Automotive Paint with Natural Raw Material Castor Oil as a Substitute of Polymeric Plasticizer

Authors : Shambhu Sharan Kumar

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Polymeric materials from natural resources have engrossed a set of developmental interests in recent years. The development of low priced automotive paints by the use of caster seed oil which has been introduced as a substitute of polymeric plasticizer materials focusing at this time to the polymer and paint industries due to the massive world wide availability, embedded biodegradability, low cost, and outstanding environmental characteristics (i.e., low toxicity toward human beings). The advantages of these outstanding natural characteristics are now being taken in the fields of research and development. Oil derived polymeric materials and composites are being utilized in many applications including paints, surface coatings, adhesives and nanocomposites. The endeavor of this research paper is likely to provide a basic enlightenment on the castor seed oil applications in polymeric activities with reference to their recent developments. Particular emphasis has been placed on the study and applications of drying oils in almost all low priced decorative and protective surface coatings. For the purpose of extraction of the oil, simple distillation method was used. Paint formulations i.e., the theoretical formulation, milling with calculated constituents to get mill-base, grinding and dispersion of pigment particles, stabilization, let-down and make-up processes were carried out within the laboratory conditions. Different paints were formulated by incorporating the base pigment rutile TiO2, alkyd resin alongwith other constituents as determined. The compatibility, viscosity, opacity, gloss, adhesion, flexibility and other quality control tests of castor seed oil plasticized automotive paints were carried out as per ASTM/BIS test methods and compared with the testing’s standard of the Berger Paints Limited. The results were found as specific gravity: 0.95± 0.02), refractive index @ 280C: (1.79± 0.01), viscosity @ 28 oC: (0.425 ± 0.12), pH: (5.800 ± 0.00), flash point: (256.000± 1.20oC), adhesion: 100%, gloss: 95-99%, 650 hours passed in salt spray test and 600 hours passed in weathering resistance test; all parameters were within the range of automotive paint applications and quality specifications. Castor-seed-oil has been appraised as an effective plasticizer and film-former in automotive paint formulations. The humidity content of the caster seeds was low, therefore, has been introduced as a material of good quality for the further use in other glossy automotive paint formulations.

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