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Volume 1 Issue 1 (October 2014)

S.No. Title & Authors Page No View

Title : Extraction of Trace amounts of Mo(II) in water samples using Nano Graphene oxide modified with porphyrinand determination FAAS

Authors : Ali Moghimi, Mohammad Yari

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Abstract : A simple, highly sensitive, accurate and selective method for determination of trace amounts of Mo2+in water samples .In this paper, a Graphene oxide with covalently linked porphyrin (GO-H2P) based new sorbent was prepared. The modified Graphene oxide (GO-H2P) was used for preconcentration of Mo(II) from aqueous solutions. The analytical variables were optimized by central composite design (CCD). Flame atomic absorption spectrometer was utilized for determination of Mo(II). The analytical features for sorption were found to be 5.2; 4.3 mL min-1 and 55.0 mL for pH, flow rate and sample volume, respectively. HNO3 was used as eluent and maximum preconcentration factor was found to be 200.Elution parameters were also determined as 4 mL min-1; 0.6 mol L-1 and 5.1 mL forflow rate, eluent concentration and eluent volume, respectively.Limit of detection and limit of quantification were found to be 49.6 and 163.7 ng L-1, respectively. Validation of the developed method was performed using certified reference material (TMDA-53.3). The methodology was applied for determination of Mo(II) in natural water samples and satisfactory results were obtained.

Title : Some methods to increase the time tE of increased safety Ex e motor for explosive atmospheres

Authors : Dr. Bhagirath Ahirwa and Dr. Tarun Kumar Chatterjee

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Abstract : Increased safety (Ex e) High Tension (HT) squirrel cage induction motors are being designed for safe operation in the explosive atmospheres. The motor time tE for increased safety motor is prime safety parameter. The higher value of time tE means insulating system of Ex e motor is able to withstand the locked condition for long time so motor will be more safe for long duration during in specified abnormal condition in hazardous area. The research work shows that the time tE of Ex e motor can be increased by two proposed methods; by increasing the mass of rotor bar or by increasing the stator coil pitch. Low speed and a high speed HT Ex e motor were selected to redesign with increasing rotor bar mass and stator coil pitch. The time tE and other parameters of redesigned motors have been compared with standard design of Ex e motor. It is anticipated that this study will be of immense benefit to Ex e HT motor designers.

Title : Routing Optimization to Maximize Network Life time using Deactivation of Uninteresting Nodes in ADHOC Network

Authors : Vikas Sarkar, Nikhat Raza, B. L. Pal

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Abstract : In ad-hoc networks, to guarantee the delivery of a packet from sender to destination, each node must maintain the energy level information of its neighbor along with itself in routing tables depending upon the network structure and geographic position assisted routing. Energy aware routing proposal deals with efficient utilization of energy resources. By controlling the early depletion of the battery it changes the power to decide the proper power level of a node and include the low power strategies into the protocols used in various layers of protocol stack. Therefore, a network needs to meet such requirements for the end users to satisfy a particular application while transporting a packet stream from a source to its destination. The energy aware routing should be efficient enough to deal with wide range of performance issues like Packet Delivery Ratio, Network Routing Load, Average End-End Delay, Routing Packet and Jitter. This paper focuses on method of energy awareness in communications between ad-hoc network nodes. The problem, of, energy constraints has been addressed in different protocols, which are based on existing protocol.

Title : Adsorption and thermodynamics of lead (II) using seeds of watermelon (SWM) as a low cost sorbent

Authors : Salem E. Samra, Bakir Jeragh, Ahmed M. EL-Nokrashy, Ahmed A. El-Asmy

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Abstract : The removal of lead(II) ions from aqueous solutions using seeds of watermelon (SWM) by adsorption technique has been studied. The adsorption % of Pb2+ at pH 6 and 120 min is ~ 97%. Solution pH, initial concentrations of Pb2+ ions and seeds of watermelon, shaking time and temperature were optimized. The Freundlich and Langmuir equations were applied. The thermodynamic parameters viz. the change in Gibbs free energy change (ΔG, - 20.96 kJ mol-1 at 333 K), enthalpy (ΔH, 18.51 Jmol-1) and entropy (ΔS, 63.00 Jmol-1 K-1) were also evaluated. The negative ΔG◦ value indicates that the adsorption is spontaneous thermodynamically. The removal of ~97% of Pb2+ ions was attained using 2 g/L SWM applying the suggested optimum experimental conditions. The procedure was successfully applied to remove Pb2+ from aqueous and different natural water samples.

Title : Environmental Impact of Indiscriminate Waste Disposal

Authors : I Abdullahi, M A Ajibike, A P Man-ugwueje, O I Ndububa

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Abstract : Indiscriminate waste disposal, in this study refers to the disposal of solid and liquid wastes without taking necessary measures. The huge amount of refuse is clearly increasing all over the base, littering streets and causing pollution, all of which cause untidiness to the Nigerian Air Force Base, Kaduna. The study identifies different types of solid waste and their composition in both old and new layouts of the base, which are indiscriminately disposed in the study area. The study also examined the environmental implication of indiscriminate waste disposal in the Nigerian Air Force Base. Careful analyses of the study questionnaire revealed that, there is much needed to be ingested into the management of domestic wastes from the households in the Nigerian Air Force Base, Kaduna. Significant relationship between the provision of required services and imminent need to improve on the disposal of waste was also considered. The study area practices three forms of disposal methods which are incineration, landfill system and composting. The problems of collection and disposal (management) of domestic, solid waste in the Nigerian Air Force Base, Kaduna face insufficient facilities, coordination, shortage of manpower, inadequate supervision, staff attitude and relative ignorance on the adversity of a filthy environment. The result obtained shows that domestic solid waste with 90 percent is the dominant type of waste generated, which consist of bio-degradable and non bio-degradable materials e.g. bottles, metal rags, leaves etc. The lowest type of waste generated was commercial with 10 percent. Efforts are needed from both personnel and their families and the Air Force Base authorities to promote the quality of the environment and save the health of inhabitants.